16th Annual Mediterranean Studies Association Congress

University of the Azores—Angra do Heroísmo

Terceira, Azores, Portugal

May 29-June 1st, 2013

 

 

 

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Centro Cultural e de Congressos de Angra do Heroísmo

Canada Nova de Santa Luzia, Angra do Heroísmo

 

5:00 PM Registration opens

6:00 PM Opening Session

 

Opening Session Address

Name: Carlos E. Pacheco Amoral, University of the Azores, “Ideas of Europe and of West: The Azores in the Transatlantic AdventureCANCELLED

Aiming at the understanding of the Mediterranean from a broad interdisciplinary perspective, regardless of either geographical or temporal borders The Mediterranean Studies Association, is a broad and interdisciplinary entity. So much so that alongside Croatia and Malaga, its membership stretches to such Universities as Massachusetts, Kansas and Utah; and its annual conference is, this year, held in the Azores. Seen at this light, the Mediterranean becomes no less than the Universe – as it indeed was at the dawn of our Western civilization. Taking its cue from this broad, civilization, perspective, and this address assumes a double dimension. On the hand, to present the Azores and the Azoreans, notwithstanding the obvious Atlantic dimension of both the Archipelago and its people. On the other, identifying the Azores in the framework of a Western, Mediterranean, civilization will allow us to at least begin to identify some of the nuclear elements of that civilization, or, put in another way, of the very idea of Europe. Not of the “the small Europe”, as David Mitrany used to qualify the early pan­‑federalist integrationist proposals, or the Europe of the 6 that ensued from the signature of the Treaties of Paris and of Rome, but of the “large Europe”, encompassing the Old Continent, of course, but also all of the “the new worlds” it would “give to the world”, in the words of the immortal prince of Portuguese poets: Luís Vaz de Camões.

 

Thursday, May 30

Universidade dos Açores - Angra do Heroísmo

Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, São Pedro

 

 

Thursday 9:00 AM – 11:00 AM

1A. Mediterranean Studies I

Chair: Maria Soledad Fernandez Utrera, University of British Columbia

 

Byung-Pil Lim, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Korea, “A Study of the

Interrelationship of the Fixed Idea and Intercultural Communication: Focused on the

Arabic Caricatures about the UN”

In the 2006 one newspaper of Denmark published the caricature of the Islamic greatest prophet Muhammad wearing the turban of a bomb and the whole Islamic world got angry by that. The painting of the Prophet Muhammad which was the taboo of Islam was a cause and above all the glossing over the Islam to the group of terrorism and violence was the basic cause. And then in September 2012 a French satirical weekly newspaper, Charli Hebdo reported the caricature which Muhammad talked to himself “it’s very hard to be loved by the fools” standing by the title “Muhammad being pressed under the extremists”. Whenever these events were happened the conflict between the Islamic world and the country or the Western Christian world was getting worse and it made worry about the realizing the clash of the civilizations. Only one picture drove the whole world into the situation of confrontation and conflict. Like this the caricature which showed briefly the images about a society as a whole has an influence on the readers and the people around them. Meantime the images which were continually appeared through the mass media like television, video, a movie, broadcast, a newspaper, a magazine made a fixed idea and a bias, and also the caricature was the factor of making a fixed idea. And the fixed idea and the bias which were influenced and stuck by the caricature will be worked on the major factors blocking the interchange between the different cultures. And so I will analyze the caricatures about UN (United Nations) which were published in the major daily newspapers of the Arab world from October to December. As you know, UN is the main body which have controlled and solved the troubles and conflicts between the states and also he has had a strong influence on the Arab world through the intervention of the uncounted events directly or indirectly. Here we can understand UN in a broad sense including the NATO, the big powers of the East and the West. And next I will deal with the theoretical background of interrelationship of the fixed idea and Intercultural Communication, and I will check about what the Arab caricatures based on the outcome of the analysis made. And also I will study that the fixed idea will have some influence on the Intercultural Communication between Arab and UN.

 

Yoon Yong Soo, Institute of Mediterranean Studies, Korea, “The Acceptance of Foreign

Languages and Languages Fusion in Tunisia”

Tunisia has been the Islamic country since AD 7c and the present constitution of Tunisia confines its identity as Islam and Arabic language. However, a lot of Tunisians (especially the urban citizens and elite society) prefer the French language to Arabic language. This research studies from here. Why? Although Tunisia having the long Islamic tradition, why many Tunisian prefer the French language and its culture? I think that it is a close relation with the French colony to Tunisia between 1881-1956. The French imperial administration in Tunisia spread the advanced western culture in Tunisia and made believe them to accomplish the modernized and advanced Tunisia through mimicking France. Ironically this policy was succeeded even after independence of Tunisia by Tunisians themselves. In this article, I research the French’s colonial language policy in Tunisia and independence Tunisia administration’s language policy that has carried the Arabization. Also, I research the language choice by the mass media of Tunisia and Tunisian’s perception to the current language variations in Tunisia. I expect that I will analyze the language interaction and its phenomena by the languages contact though Tunisia.

 

João Lupi, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil, “Maypole and Maybaum in

Brazil”

Saint Sebastian pole, besides an identification of his image, is the main "religious object" of a Catholic popular ritual in the locality of Penha, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The pole is prepared with flowers and foliages, and carried in procession to a place where people put it in a hole on the ground. In the meanwhile women catch pieces of the flowers, as a token to ask for a husband or children. The pole remains in that place and people gather around to pray, sing and dance. This ceremony and feast is obviously a ritual of fertility, the pole is a baptized maypole. All over Brazil similar ceremonies can be found, protected by a multitude of catholic saints.

 

Noriko Sato, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea, “Reshaping the Ancient

Christian Tradition and Confirming Modern Syrian Identity: The Case of Syrian

Orthodox Christians in Syria”

My paper focuses on Syrian Orthodox Christians living in Syria, who have refugee origin and have been marginalized due to the dominant political ideology promoted by the political elite, which attempts to enhance the unity of Syrians based on an Arab-Islamic culture. As a minority and a displaced group, the Syrian Orthodox Christians have attempted to reshape and recast their collective history in order to secure their political rights within Syrian society. As a survival strategy, the Syrian Orthodox Christians have concentrated on communal activities, which fell within the wider framework of national politics. Modern Syrian state politics emphasizes its secular identity and regards religions as cultures shared by Syrians. In this context, the Syrian government attempts to stress freedom of belief and respect for Christianity by emphasizing the Syria’s past tracing back to ancient history of Christianity, which Syrians share with other Christians. Syrian Orthodox Christians reinterpret the Christian tradition of the Holy Face of Edessa, which Eusebius of Caesarea first mentioned, and regard King Abgar V as their ancestor who was the king of their homeland, Edessa, and who became a Christian in the first century. In their project of reshaping their communal history, these Christians attempt to create a linkage between their community and the ancient Christian King whose messenger brought the portrait of Jesus to Edessa. They also refer to the existing portrait as a proof that they are descendant of ancient Christians of the region. Historical experience, which is the actual process of recalling past occurrences, is largely affected by the social position of the ‘agency’ who relates the events, and by their relationship to the political centre.

 

 

1B. Re-orienting the Veil

Chair: Martine Antle, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

 

Sahar Amer, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, “Teaching Muslim Women and

Veiling: A Pedagogical Model”

My presentation will propose a new model for teaching about Muslim women and veiling and will demonstrate a pedagogical website I have developed, under the auspices of the Center for European Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (http://veil.unc.edu). The main objective of this pedagogical model is to counter the homogenizing tendencies of much of the scholarship and media discussions about this topic. Instead, the veil website that will be presented takes an interdisciplinary approach to the topic of veiling and examines veiling practices from a global perspective. This approach allows the teacher and user to confront the multiple meanings of veiling practices in Muslim-majority and Muslim-minority societies and to recognize the fact that there is no explicit injunction to veil in Islam just as that there has never been one singular or authentic way of wearing Islamic clothing. By focusing on religion and on the extremist practices espoused by a minority of Muslims, political debates over Muslim women’s veiling in Europe fail to apprehend the crucial role that culture, fashion, geography, politics, and the economy play in any woman’s decision to adopt veiling.

 

Martine Antle, “Veiling in Art across the Mediterranean”

In this PowerPoint presentation I propose to survey art produced by contemporary women artists in the Mediterranean that addresses and engages in dialogue with the question of veiling. Their art points to the complexities surrounding any discourse on the veil and the contradictory meanings that the veil can take in a postcolonial context. From the perspective of these artists, the act of wearing or of taking off the veil is multifaceted and points more to the multiplicity of meanings of the veil than to a singular essential meaning of the veil itself. Positioning themselves as cross-cultural artists, these women artists across the Mediterranean regions are particularly aware of the dangers of stereotyping and the risks of reinforcing Orientalist stereotypes.

 

Maria Ersilia Marchetti, University of Catania, “Veiling in Italy: Tradition and

Innovations”

This talk will first offer a comparative cross-cultural perspective between Italy and France on the question of the veil. I will start by exploring this question through the writings of Nerval, Le Clézio, Alberto Moravia and Dacia Maraini. I will then question the extent to which contemporary writers such as Zahia Rahmani, Saphia Azedine and Amara Lakhous challenge traditional views of veiling as presented in the media and how they call for a new construction and interpretation of Islamic dress.

 

Amy I. Aronson, Valdosta State University, “Inside the Veil: Perceptions of the Harem

from the Outside”

The production, distribution, and consumption of literary depictions of the Middle Eastern harem in the nineteenth and twentieth century relied on a number of local and international social and cultural developments, not least of which was the market in the “West” (in this case, Europe and North America) for what is known as “harem literature.” Generally characterized by first person narration, harem literature emerged by the mid-nineteenth century as a sub-genre of travel writing, one that especially favored women whose gender gave, and was held to give, them special access to the harem’s segregated spaces. Following many of the conventions of the emergent field of travel literature, harem literature offered western women a chance to claim for themselves a specialism within Orientalist knowledge that could be both generalist and scholarly.

 

The existence of a substantial body of women’s writings from and about the Middle Eastern harem, challenges the western Orientalist stereotype of harem women as isolated, uneducated, passive, sexualized, and uniformly oppressed. Taken together, these sources provide valuable evidence of the range of women’s participation in the popular literary cultures that accompanied, tried to make sense of, and contributed to the (gendered) debates about empire, nation, and statehood which marked a century dominated by the variable fortunes of competing imperial models of East and West. This paper will explore these sources, with particular emphasis on those from the Iberian Peninsula, in an attempt to uncover the stereotypes and suggest an alternative understanding of harem women.

 

 

1C. Europe and the New World

Chair: Susan L. Rosenstreich, Dowling College

 

Patrizia Granziera, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Mexico,

“Evangelization in Portuguese India and New Spain: European Reactions to Devotional

Images of the Divine Feminine”

In Mexico and the Americas Catholic faith from the beginning has been essentially Marian. The conquest of the New World was carried out under the protection of the Virgin Mary. The Spanish who disembarked in Mexico in 1520 brought with them many images and statues of the Virgin Mary. These images, brought to protect them during the voyage turned out to be the first Catholic holy representation that the “indios” saw replacing their gods.


This Marianism of the colonial period in Mexico is linked to the counter-reformation spirit in Europe and especially in Spain where in response to Protestant criticism of Marian devotions, the Catholic Church vigorously promoted the cult of Mary and her immaculate conception.


In Southern India the major encounter with Christianity came in the sixteenth century with the arrival of the Portuguese. Trade, conquest and Christianization went hand in hand for the Portuguese. Goa, which the Portuguese first gained control of in 1510, formed the Asian centre of their overseas activities. Conversion to the Catholic faith took place between 1527-1549. From the beginning, the task of evangelization was in the hands of the missionary both in Mexico and India. These missionaries were all fervent devotees of different Marian cults. However goddess cults were already a central part of pre-Hispanic and Southern India religions.

 
This paper will explore how European missionaries responded to the popularity of the goddesses in the new colonized lands (Mexico and India). It asks how similar or different were the conceptions of the female divine and how Mary became the new terrible protectoress of a certain space and community. This analysis will be based on an examination of colonial writings and devotional images both in Mexico and Southern India.

Susan L. Rosenstreich, “Islands and Exiles: The Early Modern French Voyage to the New

World”

If the official story is that sixteenth century France was interested in the New World for its brazilwood and its supposed passageway to the Indies, travel writing from this period tells quite another story. Attempting to carry out their daunting missions, French explorers, resourceful as they may have been across the Atlantic, found themselves isolated from their familiar world and out of reach of known sources of support. In their helplessness, they naturally turned to natives for supplies and local knowledge. But this understandable dependence on strangers clashed with the Frenchman’s assumption of technological superiority. Cloaking this unpleasant reality in condescending descriptions of crude engineering and coarse social practices in the New World, early modern French travel writing discloses a much more complex relationship between the sixteenth century Frenchman and the New World native. Cut off from his familiar life by the rituals of departure from the home port that precede the outbound voyage, the traveler is cast as an exile from his known world onto an island in the middle of nowhere, a new world unconnected to the history of the Old World. On this island floating in time, the traveler must relinquish his agency, and depend on native resources and knowledge to construct a viable agenda for survival. But in his dependence on these peoples, the Frenchman is made intimately aware of nuances in native ways of life. Finding his stereotypical judgments inadequate when he confronts native expertise, the traveler develops deep sympathies with these strangers, expressing himself in the anecdotal accounts of encounters between Frenchman and native. When he returns to France, the traveler, once again in his familiar world, recovers his relinquished agency. But the experience of exile, the complex feelings it engendered, tempers that agency with nostalgia for a moment when the traveler found a home of his own amongst strange friends on an island floating in time. Drawing on the travel writing from the expeditions of Binot de Gonneville who sailed for a business consortium in Honfleur, the Florentine Giovanni Verrazzano sailing for the French king, Jacques Cartier who crossed to Canada at least three times, and René Goulaine de Laudonnière who attempted a Protestant settlement in terra florida, this presentation follows the story of the relationship between the early modern French traveler to the New World and the natives he encounters, offering reflections on the universal experience of isolation and exile.

 

Elizabeth Kuznesof, University of Kansas, “Growing up in the Transatlantic Portuguese

World: Childhood and Education in Portugal and Brazil (1700-1900)”

Migration was integral to Portuguese culture. It was not surprising that Portuguese youth spent time with kin in Brazil as Brazilian youth also did with kin in Portugal. Similar values of economy, entrepreneurship and value for tradition and for kin influenced Portuguese on both sides of the Atlantic. Their continuous migration also resulted in a strong transatlantic culture and economy. This paper will be based on papers of Portuguese entrepreneurs involved in international commerce as well as data relating to migration and marriage.

 

Laurie Wilkie, University of California, Berkeley, “Material and Social Echoes of the

Azores in California”

First drawn by the whaling industry, Portuguese came to California first in the 1850s. Many Azoreans migrated to Hawaii in 1877 to work on sugar plantations, but later left for California, with many settling in the bay area counties of San Mateo and Alameda in the 1890s. Farming failures, combined with an oppressive government regime in the early 20th century led to more waves of Azorean emigration to California. Families and communities moved together, settling where earlier generations had settled. In the 1870s, Azoreans founded or heavily developed several central California coastal communities, such as Pescadoro and Half Moon Bay. Emigrations to the area continued as recently as the 1970s. Azoreans in California are a Diasporic community, in that they feel the politics and economics of their situations in the Azores led to a forced out migration from their homeland, and a great deal of their self-identification arises from a sense of loss and nostalgia for home, known in Portuguese as “saudade”. As I will discuss, these Azorean immigrations have had an enduring impact on the material and social life of the California central coast. Azorean foods, architectural styles, burial practices, farming practices, and social organizations and festivals have become part of the fabric of the central California’s coastal communities.

 

Thursday 11:15 AM – 1:15 PM

2A. The Global Renaissance

Chair: Geraldo U. de Sousa, University of Kansas

 

Richard Raspa, Wayne State University, “Misreading the Text: The Limits of Classical

Virtue in Titus Andronicus

The tragedy in Shakespeare’s Titus Andronicus is sprung not by adversaries, cunning as they are, but by Titus’ misreading of the social texts of ancient Rome and the speech acts of his own sons, and the captured enemies of the Roman Empire--the Queen of the Goths Tamora and her consort Aaron the Moor. The consequences of misreading shock the early modern stage with acts of rape, mutilation, ritualistic killing, and cannibalism. The play’s resolution turns on the accurate reading of another text from antiquity—the story of Philomela and Procne from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. My paper deals with the ways in which meanings are made and erased in Titus Andronicus through the reading and misreading of cultural texts encoded in the Roman traditions of honor, allegiance, public service, and the cardinal virtues as well Titus’ misreading the cues of his own sons, and of Tamora and Aaron.

 

Geraldo U. de Sousa, “‘President of My Kingdom’: Boundaries in a Globalized World in

Antony and Cleopatra

In Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare represents the effects of global interconnectedness and mobility, as well as attempts to sustain a sense of the local and attempts to maintain our own “little” world when borders collapse and global forces expand their reach. In particular, I explore what Lucy R. Lippard defines as the “lure of the local,” “the pull of place,” and “the need to belong somewhere.” In this context, “the lure of the local,” which Shakespeare’s play associates with Egypt, clashes with Roman influence and hegemony. When Cleopatra insists on commanding her own troops, side by side with Antony, into battle, she argues that she bears “a charge” in the war, and that, “as the president of my kingdom,” she will appear on the battlefield “for a man” (3.7.19-23). The play raises a fundamental question about what it means to “preside” in such a world.

 

Gaywyn Moore, University of Kansas, “Lost and Found in the Azores: Redefining Worth

and Wealth in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West

Thomas Heywood’s The Fair Maid of the West is a play awash in gold. The port towns of

England flow with Spanish booty liberated by honorable gentlemen and enterprising pirates alike. The Azores themselves function as a contested site for determining the nature of worth and wealth. Occupied by first the English, and then the Spanish, the Azores inadvertently become a distribution center for New World wealth. After many a pitched battle, the Azores must serve one more purpose: contested burial site for the bodies of the English and Spanish combatants. The disinterred body of an English Protestant becomes one more act of piracy, as Spanish mariners lay claim to his funereal monument. The Azores act as a kind of philosopher’s stone, transmuting landed wealth into the liquid assets gained at sea, a barmaid into “a girl worth gold,” and a murderer into an innocent.

 

David M. Bergeron, University of Kansas, “Thomas Middleton, Thomas Middleton:

London 1613” 

What did Thomas Middleton, a London Grocer, and Thomas Middleton, a London playwright, have in common in 1613? Plenty, as it turns out. Their professional and personal lives intersected several times this year in important ways. Their intertwined connections underscore a powerful link between dramatists and the City of London’s guilds. This paper examines several of Middleton’s dramatic entertainments that impinge on Middleton the Grocer and Lord Mayor. I argue that this rich connection changed the dramatist’s professional life, leading him ever deeper on the complementary road of civic involvement and the production of several Lord Mayor’s Shows and the appointment in 1620 as City Chronologer.

 

2B. Mediterranean Studies II

Chair: Alma Jean Billingslea, Spelman College

 

Alma Jean Billingslea, “Black Diasporas in the Mediterranean”

The concept of “overlapping” diasporas, first articulated by historian Earl Lewis, has been used primarily to dispel the notion of dispersal from one essentialized culture to a specified host site. But the concept makes possible the idea that the history of black diasporas globally is a history of many ethnicities, cultures, religions and traditions coalescing under the sign of race. Using recent research on the African presence in Renaissance Europe and African diasporas in the Mediterranean lands of Islam, this paper focuses on the intersection of race, religion, culture and secular power in the construction of identity for sub-Saharan Africans in the Mediterranean from the 15th century onward. Owing to the trans-Saharan, Red Sea and Indian Ocean slave trades, the number of captive Africans who were exported to Mediterranean lands is far more significant than previously assumed. This paper, building on new research and new approaches, examines issues of identity for sub- Saharan Africans in the Mediterranean with specific reference to the historical experience of forced migration and racialization. At the same time, given the historic reality of intense commercial, religious and cultural exchanges in the Mediterranean, this paper also explores the degree to which these exchanges enabled sub-Saharan Africans to straddle multiple spaces and complex networks of affiliation to create what may be now called overlapping diasporas.

 

Jung Ha Kim, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Busan University of Foreign Studies,

Korea, “An Oriental Reflection on the Multiplex Cultural Identity of Sicily”

Culture (Mun-hwa), from the perspective of Eastern society, means patterns (Mun) of various levels. It is reiterated in the basis of dynamics to become (or create) something new (Hwa). Here, dynamics refers to the process of mobility within the cosmic dual forces. Then, what is pattern? The Book of Changes describes pattern as the design of created world, which is a natural law from countless time, and reflection of all lives that are interpreted in two-dimensional space derived from a natural law (Li-Chi).

Eventually, culture is time, and a pattern of both space based on time and developing community within that space. In terms of a natural law, every cycle of live spreads through the two-dimensional space is different in its contents and length. However, the principle of the process - every life cycle starts from birth and ends to death - is identical. This is called the principle of ‘Fractal structure’. Sicily is the society of multiplex cultural identity. According to The Book of Changes, every change in the world prepares for the new cycle of evolution and circulation when they meet the counterpart waiting for them and formulate the relationship of harmony. Likewise, the multiplex cultural identity of Sicily is a result of various cultures naturally (and organically) being harmonized. Then, why is Sicily regarded as a ‘region of nothing done and at the same time something done’, or as a territory of Mafia and social poverty, and as an economical black hole of European Union? This judgment is a consequence of antagonized logic about rationality and irrationality, or efficiency and inefficiency. This is also a result of interpreting Sicily from a political hegemony which had been passed to the northern part of the Alps after the fall of the Roman Empire, and from a political-economic hegemony that Sicily is an alienated region of a global world.

 

No question is being satisfactorily answered about the reason why Sicily is an essence of western culture even though people keep saying Sicily retains all legacy of Europe. This study examines Sicily’s multiplex cultural identity in terms of Dae-Dae and You-Haeing which are moving force of yin and yang, instead of the antagonizing concepts. Dae refers to appreciate a counterpart as one’s partner, and Dae refers to wait and be prepared for the counterpart. Thus, Dae-Dae generally means to wait for a counterpart. You refer to flow, and Haeing refers to go, walk, run away, flow and experience. Overall, You-Haeing means to experience or make something while something is in progress. In conclusion, two concepts uncover the reason that anything in the world cannot create new lives like stagnant water when a counterpart don’t exist, and neither the process of development or evolution.

 

Throughout the history of Sicily or ‘siculi’, it has been continuously encountering different kinds of counterparts. In terms of political-economic point of view, it can be regarded as a simple logic of dominance and sub-ordinance, however, in social-cultural respect; it was a process of formulating new instance through experiencing cultural exchange and integration among various models while facing some factors of Dae-Dae.

 

Amikam Nachmani, Bar Ilan University, Israel, “A Most Vicious Weapon: Rape and War”

More and more we hear about a new/old weapon - - extremely primitive, very cheap, alas highly effective - - that heavily affects the fate of wars and people: the use of rape as a strategic weapon. In short: if wars erupt for the purpose of purifying and getting rid of the ethnic group from unwanted foreign elements, then polluting and contaminating the rival enemy group by rape, promises to produce the quick realization of these wars' aims. There is also a clear aspect of genocide connected to raped women - - the removal of these women as potential future mothers with whom their community's men will willingly have children. Traditionally, women who have been raped are forbidden to men and it is prohibited to parent children with them in many communities. This further impacts the demography and reduces the community's overall population. Rape, thus, bears the facet of genocide. The irony of history is that WWII that broke out to clean the Aryan race from unwanted elements resulted in more than two million cases of rape of German women done by the Red Army. The hierarchy of races done by the Nazi regime and the Aryan race scale adopted by it, put the Slavs, the Untermenschen, at the bottom of race scale, in par with the husbandry animals. Side by side with new sophisticated technologies and ultra modern weapons, one finds that the most effective weapons recently used are the most primitive, cheap, and simple to use weapons - - drop a plane on a high rise building, commit suicide bombing, or use the ultimate weapon: rape your enemy's women.
 
The paper will discuss the phenomenon of rape in war and relate to recent examples from the Mediterranean areas that have happened during the (poorly defined) "Arab Spring": the civil war in Syria and the military campaign in Libya that brought about the fall of Muammar Gaddafi's regime.

 

2C. Literature, Film and Culture

Chair: James P. Gilroy, University of Denver

 

James P. Gilroy, “The Modernity of Prevost’s Grecque moderne

In his 1741 novel, Histoire d’une Grecque moderne, based in part on historical figures, the Abbé Prévost presents the story of Théophé, a woman seeking liberation. A young Greek held captive in a Turkish harem, she is rescued from her life of sexual enslavement by the French ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. She now hopes to have the opportunity to cultivate her mind and attain the level of moral integrity he has told her characterizes the women of Western Europe. Unfortunately for her, her liberator is unable to free himself from his own prejudices about the subservience of women to men, and he becomes the greatest obstacle to the fulfillment of her aspirations. He falls in love with her, like Pygmalion with Galatea, and cannot understand why she refuses his advances in the name of her new moral ideals. In his view, a sexual relationship between a man and a woman in their positions is the only normal course of action. Although in his more lucid moments he admits that he has no claim over her, he becomes pathologically jealous and possessive. He blames her for his own failure to acknowledge her rights as a human being. In the end he destroys both their lives. Her pursuit of mastery over her own mind and body is thus thwarted, and she remains a prisoner of male dominance. Théophé’s only ally is the author, who structures the narrative in such a way as to provide sympathetic recognition an even protection of her inviolable selfhood.

Maria Soledad Fernandez Utrera, University of British Columbia, “Primera Proclama de

Pombo”

El Café, como dice Antoni Martí Monterde, es un espacio ideologizado y literario donde se impulsa la modernidad críticamente (451-52). En España, los anarquistas, en concreto, habían hecho del café—el Platerías, en Madrid, por ejemplo-- una pieza funcional de su estructura descentralizada. Con el uso anarquista del café, se incorpora la subversión proletaria (los clientes) a la heterodoxia burguesa (los propietarios burgueses que regularizan el ocio y así lo convierten en negocio también [33]).
En esta charla se explorará el carácter ideológico con el que se origina la tertulia de Gómez de la Serna. Para ello, se repasa sucintamente lo dicho por Ramón en referencia al café y la tertulia. Especial atención se prestará a uno de sus primeros escritos: la Primera Proclama de Pombo. Cuáles son los postulados ideológicos a partir de los que se origina la tertulia del café Pombo? Está la ritualización de Pombo conectada a esta significación ideológica y anarquista?

 

Eun-Jee Park, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Busan University of Foreign Studies

(BUFS), Korea, “Maghrebi Family Romance on French Screens: Alterity and Identity”

Contemporary French cinema has witnessed an increased visibility in the work of filmmakers of Maghrebi descent who grew up in France. The term “beur cinema” refers to this group of works, which now play prominent roles on the French screen. The existence of Beur cinema came to indicate a particular form of films that rather sympathetically portray the lived experience of Maghrebi families in keeping with contemporary socio-economic and cultural situations in France. In these family narratives, the young generation of French-Maghrebis is often caught between “Muslim” and “French”. The trope of the traditional Muslim father and the assimilated French son recurs persistently in the work of the beur cinema, constructing the narratives and images of Muslim youth who leave behind their parents’ aspiration for religion and identity. Different cultural expectations cultivated by young French-Maghrebis are more attuned to debates on social integration in France and, therefore, the secular ideals of French nation-state. My paper addresses this cinematic phenomenon by focusing on Bye-bye (Karim Dridi 1995) and Le Grand Voyage (Ismael Ferrouhki 2004), two very different versions of Maghrebi family romance that foregrounds intergenerational dynamics caught between Frenchness and otherness.

 

Thursday 3:00 – 5:00 PM

3A. Early Modern Studies I

Chair: Amy I. Aronson, Valdosta State University

 

Ronald Surtz, Princeton University, “Staging the Fall in Sixteenth-Century Spain: The Play

of Adam’s Sin

The anonymous sixteenth-century Castilian play Aucto del peccado de Adán presents a number of peculiar features in its dramatization of Genesis. Lucifer has two allegorical companions, Gluttony and Avarice, who collaborate with him in leading Adam and Eve into sin. Eve creates dramatic tension when she initially resists the Serpent’s flattering words. And when the apple’s sweetness leads her to want to share it with Adam, he at first refuses, but ends up tasting the fruit, not out of pride as in Genesis, but rather in order to please Eve. When God confronts Adam and Eve, Adam puts the blame on Eve, while Eve blames the Serpent. As the play ends, Adam and Eve meekly accept their punishment, even as the sword-wielding Angel who expels them from Paradise suggests a future happy ending when he tells them to have faith in God’s mercy. The play thematizes the twin motifs of clothing and nudity, thus inviting speculation as to the role costumes or their lack may have performed in the staging of the play. The work also makes use of two contrasting modes of music, harmonious for Adam and Eve, raucous and demonic for Lucifer and his diabolic henchmen.

 

Marianna D. Birnbaum, UCLA, “A Renaissance Manuscript Dipped in ‘The Great Ocean

Sea’”

The manuscript under discussion, containing poems by the foremost Renaissance poet of Hungary, Janus Pannonius, is housed in the Biblioteca Capitular y Colombina of Seville. The first detailed description of the codex (7-1-15) was published by me in "Viator" 4 (1973).

 

The Janus codex is a part of the thousands of works that Columbus’s son Fernando collected. It includes pieces he inherited from his father’s personal library. This collection of Janus's poems, gathered decades after the poet died, was copied by four separate hands. One of the four, the sole copyist I was able to identify – tentatively - also worked for Columbus, Admiral of the Ocean Sea. The slender volume displays water stains, suggesting that at some time, it may well have fallen into the Atlantic.

 

Joshua M. White, University of Virginia, “Piracy, Slavery, and Subjecthood in the Early

Ottoman Mediterranean”

Who could and could not be legally enslaved in the early modern Mediterranean was a question not only of religious identity—of Muslims enslaving Christians and Christians enslaving Muslims—but also, in the Ottoman case, of juridical subjecthood. The enslavement of Ottoman non-Muslim subjects, for example, was strictly forbidden under Islamic and Ottoman law, but so too was the enslavement of the subjects of the Ottomans’ treaty-partners, which included Venice during the long period of peace between 1573 and 1645. Nevertheless, Ottoman-affiliated pirates often raided Ottoman coastal possessions, capturing Ottoman non-Muslim subjects who were supposed to be protected, as well as Venetian subjects and others whom they were treaty-bound not to molest. Such raiders employed a variety of techniques to disguise the provenance of their captives. They sold them in distant Ottoman ports where no one could identify them, claiming they were legally enslaved enemy infidels, and they relied on long-distance networks of friendly officials and slave dealers who could be counted on to look the other way for a share of the profits. Based on research in Ottoman administrative documents and Venetian ambassadorial dispatches and consular reports, this paper explores the trade in illegal captives by pirates and their accomplices in the Ottoman Mediterranean, the difficulties inherent in defining and determining subjecthood on the ground, and the administrative and legal tools the Ottoman central government employed, often in concert with Venice, to locate and identify the illegally enslaved and effect their return home.

 

Angela Brandão, Universidade Federal de São Paulo—UNIFESP, “Livro dos regimentos

dos officiaes mecanicos: a transposição de modelos de trabalho artesanal e artístico de

Portugal para Brasil.” [“Livro dos regimentos dos officiaes mecanicos: The Transposition of

Handicraft and Artistic Work Model from Portugal to Brazil”]

Among the problems that have been currently clarified by art historiography in Brazil, we can indicate the diversity of anonymous workers that composed construction sites of the colonial religious buildings. In 1572, it was published in Portugal the legislation entitled Livro dos Regimentos dos officiaes mecanicos da mui nobre e sëpre leal cidade de Lixboa (Craftsmen’s Regiment Book of Lisbon). Those laws, derived from the medieval corporations, organized all the system of the artisan’s works, previewing different controlling methods. Those rules were actives in Portugal and in Brazil until the end of the 18th century. Our interest is to understand, in this paper, the transference from Portugal to Brazil of this artisan work model and its transformation into the colonial reality. Among the control methods of manufacturing activities we can find the presence of crafts judges, in the Câmaras Municipais, responsible for different procedures in order to control the professional exercise, like examinations, licenses, authorizations, and they were also responsible for evaluate the quality of the finished works. In this group of precepts we can realize not only requirements on practical knowledge, but also on artistic theories, probably based on the Architecture’s Treaties by Serlio or Vignola. The examination that these craftsmen had to submit, in the case of wood carvers, for example, consisted in showing their ability to project and to build an altar piece, composed by the classic orders, and the capacity to apply classical elements. Scholar knowledge is adapted for a practical usage by artisans, especially in the interior architecture, in a sense to create monumentality applied on small pieces. All this system that organizes the manufacturing and artistic activities, derived from Portuguese medieval models, was modified when adapted in Brazilian colony, but in fact, the rigid division of artisan’s works was not respected even in Portugal. According to the Livro dos Regimentos, an artisan could not make a work that belonged to another group of craftsmen. Probably this precept was not respected in a strict way not even in Portugal; therefore many similar artisans’ activities were blended. All this control system was complex because the artisans used to employ in their ateliers (called logeas, oficinas or tendas) groups of African slaves. If the limits between Fine Arts and Arts & Crafts were not so clear in the Portuguese artistic universe until the 17th century, several times a wood carver was able to make an sculpture of an angel; an sculptor was able to construct an altarpiece; a carpenter was able to construct a bridge, but also could be in charged to make some delicate candlesticks; and so on. Different ways lead us to conclude that the artistic and artisan’s activities, in their various modalities, are superposed one over the others, and the artistic functions are developed by different professionals, in construction sites of churches and their interior decoration in Colonial Brazil. We can suppose that the dialogue between different kinds of artistic manifestation is complemented by the social circumstances in which the artisan activities were developed.

 

3B. Azores

Chair: David Horta Lopes, University of the Azores

 

Armando Mendes, University of the Azores, “Relheiras: Séculos de história escrita no

Basalto”

O "carro de bois" é o principal veículo do mundo rural açoriano, estatuto que lhe é conferido desde os primórdios da presença humana nas ilhas e que se prolonga até ao advento da mecanização significativa da agricultura, que ocorre nos anos setenta do século XX. Ao longo dos séculos, esses meios de transporte, servidos por rodas forradas a aros de ferro, deixaram sulcos profundos no basalto das ilhas que se designam por relheiras. Estas relheiras são âncoras capazes de alicerçar estudos com vista à compreensão da cultura, da sociedade e da economia dos Açores. Na nossa comunicação abordamos o caso da ilha Terceira. (Armando Mendes é Jornalista e Assistente-convidado da Universidade dos Açores. Licenciado em História Científica; pós-graduado em Direito Regional; Mestre em Relações Internacionais.)

 

Francisco Miguel Nogueira, University of the Azores, “Azores during World War II—

Terceira Island Case”

The British arrived in Terceira, in October of 1943 and left the Island 3 years later. The British landing in Terceira Island allowed the fast expansion of the runway and the decrease of the unemployment, which had risen sharply because many farmers had been expropriated of their lands. The state of war, the increasing of the population and the lack of land for agriculture led the island to a growing shortage of raw materials and a strong rationing. This caused an increase in the cost of living in the island, because there were fewer products and more money. However, these prices were too high for the purchasing power of the local people, who lived in a difficult situation.

 

The Portuguese-British interaction began with the hiring of local workers for the Airfield and slowly intensified. The British began to take part in some local festivities, having become closer to the women in the island. This was not well regarded by local men, who forced the Military Commands to resolve the situation. During this period, near the British camp, prostitution houses and taverns emerge in greater numbers.

 

The impact of the British presence can be seen by the intensified activity in sports between the two peoples, the emergence of cinemas and bars with music, the construction of the airfield, the appearance of words like "Bidon", but mainly in the construction of the Aldeia Nova das Lajes, the portrait of the Portuguese-British friendship. The Azores are an example of the importance of the outlying islands during World War II. Keywords: British arrival; airfield; military base; Lajes; military; rationing; expropriation; interaction.

 

Álvaro Monjardino, Historical Institute of the Island of Terceira, “Atlântico: O Novo

Mediterrâneo”

 

 

3C. Ancient Mediterranean I

Chair: Susan O. Shapiro, Utah State University

 

Susan O. Shapiro, “Reciprocity and Justice in Catullan Invective”

 

Spyridon Tzounakas, University of Cyprus, “Caesar as Hostis in Lucan’s De Bello Civili

In Lucan’s De Bello Civili, Caesar’s literary portrayal is embellished with elements that oftenfacilitate his comparison to en external enemy of Rome. More specifically, either explicitly or implicitly with artful intertextual allusions the poet compares Caesar with Pyrrhus, Hannibal, or the Gauls and thus implies the ferocious and antinational stance of the general. The example of the Ciceronian presentation of Catiline as hostis patriae as well as the direct and indirect references to him by Lucan make the task all the easier. Having thus drawn attention to Caesar’s remove from the notion of Romanitas, the poet can equate the general’s prevalence with the subjugation of the nation more easily.

 

Vaios Vaiopoulos, Ιόνιο Πανεπιστήμιο (Ionian University), “Hypermestra querens: Re-

Reading Ovid’s Heroides 14”

The paper concentrates on the myth about the Danaids as seen by Ovid in Heroides 14, where Hypermestra, a personage known from epic and tragic poetry is cited within elegiac ambience. The reader will be able to know the myth through the memories, the hopes and the fears of Danaus’ daughter. What seems to be really peculiar about Ovid is that he passes over the importance of love as a motive for Hypermestra’s disobedience, although the Epistulae Heroidum is dominated by the notion of love. Apart from this, Ovid presents her composing an elegiac epistle, in which the heroine’s lament is in accordance with all the stylistic conventions of the Roman love elegy. However, numerous hints and ambiguous expressions allow the reader to suspect that love and love poetry is always present in Ovid’s priorities; if this is true, the poet has realized a perfect deception of his audience by finally rejecting his own prima facie recusatio of amor.

 

3D. Art History I

Chair: Thomas Prasch, Washburn University

 

Catherine Infante, University of Wisconsin-Madison, “Captive Images: The Value and

Circulation of Visual Culture in the Early Modern Mediterranean”

Travel in the early modern Mediterranean often times entailed captivity and, as a result, Spanish, as well as other European authors, described all sorts of travel experiences of the numerous captives that fell into enemy hands and were forced to live in captivity. However, although scholars have focused almost exclusively on human captivity, it was not only human beings that suffered the pain of bondage, but sacred objects were also coveted and taken captive, sold, and redeemed by certain individuals on both sides of the Mediterranean. In this presentation, I will look specifically at the travel and captivity of sacred objects in Gómez de Losada’s treatise Escuela de trabajos (1670) and Andreu de San José’s Relación del milagroso rescate del Crucifixo de las monjas de San Joseph de Valencia (1625). These authors dedicate part of their work to giving an account of the captivity of religious images that circulated between Turks and Christians in Algiers. I will explore how these authors articulate the value of these images as they cross geographical, religious, and cultural boundaries, and how a focus on the visual culture in these texts can help elucidate our understanding of interreligious and cross-cultural relations in the early modern Mediterranean world.

 

Ufuk Serin, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi (Middle East Technical University, Turkey),

“Byzantine Ankara and the Church of St. Clement”

Among the Byzantine churches of ancient Ankara only the vestiges of the church erected within the temple of Rome and Augustus and those of St. Clement have survived. The church of St. Clement, built of rubble stone and brick, was constructed on a cross-inscribed plan, with a central dome, including a narthex, galleries, and a crypt. The date of this church has long been debated, with several different proposals oscillating from the second half of the fifth to the middle of the ninth century. The remains of this building - almost completely lost before the 1960s - are in a poor state of preservation, and no research has focused on St. Clement’s after the first quarter of the last century. This paper intends to re-investigate the topographical, architectural, and ornamental characteristics of this church as part of ongoing comprehensive research by the author into Late Antique and Byzantine Ankara.

 

Saygin Salgirli, Sabancı Üniversitesi, “Art Histories of the Medieval Mediterranean: In

Search of a Common Language”

In 1942, Richard Krautheimer published “Introduction to an ‘Iconography of Medieval

Architecture’,” where he argued that dissimilarities between an original building and its copies were due to political choices that could be interpreted through meaning. In 1993, Jonathan M. Bloom’s “On the Transmission of Designs in Early Islamic Architecture” appeared, where dissimilarity between the original and the copy was no longer due to political choice, but the result of an inability to translate visual language to textual language. Four years later, in “The Islamic Rider in the Beatus of Girona,” O.K. Werckmeister demonstrated that an image that was previously interpreted as an Islamic St. George slaying a serpent was indeed a generic persecutor of Christians. In a given context, even the most iconic imagery could be subverted to mean exactly the opposite. In 2004, Oya Pancaroglu’s “The Itinerant Dragon-Slayer” reversed this critical perspective, and argued that dragon-slayer images, regardless of context, bound together the diverse ethnic and religious communities of Anatolia. By taking the lack of communication between these articles as a methodological starting point, this paper is going to search for a common art historical language that would unite rather than compartmentalize the art history of the medieval Mediterranean.

 

Thomas Prasch, “‘The Attributes of His Ancestors’: John Thompson’s Photographic

Expedition to Cyprus, 1878” 

Photographer John Thomson, arriving at the “one English hotel in Cyprus” in 1878, in the immediate wake of the Berlin Conference of 1878 that resulted in Britain taking over administration of the island, found himself surrounded by “a number of disconsolate Englishmen, whose only occupation apparently consisted in asking each other … whether they had had fever, whether they liked the place … when they were going back, why they had come to such a place, and altogether the reception was rather dispiriting,” almost leading Thomson “to return [to England] at once.” But he persevered in his project to photograph the people and topography of Cyprus, reporting in a more optimistic spirit that, “although the island has been woefully wrecked by Turkish maladministration … it is neither barren nor ‘exhausted,’ and … may regain something at least of its old renown.” But if Thomson seems to place Cyprus, as he had China two decades before, as a country with the potential to be reawakened to civilization through modern commerce, the photographs and accompanying texts assembled to document his journey tell a different story: not of progressive possibilities, but of changelessness, of a people and place largely unchanged through the sequence of conquests to which they had been subjected. As British power succeeded Ottoman domination on the island, such a message promised little to the new conquerors. Thomson’s pioneering street photography, first in China and then in East London, have gained significant scholarly attention, but his final photographic expedition to Cyprus has been largely neglected by scholars. This paper will redress that neglect.

 

 

 

 

Friday, May 31

 

Friday 9:00 AM – 11:00 AM

4A. Towards the Central Mediterranean: Trade Routes and Travels to Naples and Sicily (18th-19th Centuries)

Chair: Salvatore Bottari, University of Messina

 

Salvatore Bottari, “Sicilian Foreign Trade in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century”

Foreign trade was one of the most important sectors for the Sicilian economy in the early modern age. Thanks to its geographical position in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily played a key role in the commercial competition between Britain and France. The proposed paper aims at analyzing the Sicilian foreign trade in the second half of the eighteenth century. It focuses, particularly, to the sea routes and the quantitative and qualitative dimension of trade. This research is based on primary sources from British, French and Italian archives.

 

Mirella Mafrici, University of Salerno, “The Russian-Neapolitan Treaty and the

Commercial Relations between the Two States (1787-1806)”

The opening of the Black Sea to foreign trades and the freedom of navigation for Russia, at first, and then for Austria, France and other nations brought a new start in commercial relations between these ports and the Mediterranean ones. And, after the Austro-Russian alliance (1781), it was the Neapolitan court, and especially Queen Mary Caroline, to show their interest towards the Romanov Empire, though it was only in January 1787, after four years of dealing –that the Russian-Neapolitan treaty was signed at Tsarskoe-Selo. This treaty, similar to the French-Russian alliance signed a few days before, caused a not unjustified alarm among several States, which saw not only a new economic bound between the two States, but also a mutual neutral support in case of war. The treaty brought many new issues: besides the possibility of professing their own religion at home or elsewhere as decided by the two governments, the institutions of consuls and vice-consuls in four ports – two in the Sicily and two in the Russian Empire –, a monetary agreement, uncommon at that time, and primarily the Russian trading flag to be given to the Neapolitan vessels heading the Black Sea.

 

Rosa Maria Delli Quadri, University of Naples “L’Orientale” (Italy), “From the New to the

Old World: Americans in Naples and in the Mediterranean (1800-1850)”

If for British travelers traveling to the Southern Europe is a rite of passage that has its roots in the tradition of the Grand Tour, for Americans the Atlantic Tour is an entirely new experience, as it is new, in the early nineteenth century, their presence in the Mediterranean waters. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study on the routes, means and itineraries of American travelers in the first half of the nineteenth century facing the Atlantic crossing to visit the Old Continent. This analysis, carried out by intersecting various repertoires with travel memoirs written by the 'Innocents Abroad', had as its theme the Mediterranean journey of the ‘children’ of old Europe. They are travelers sought, hunted, played and accompanied along the route chosen to reach Naples, the capital of the Italian Mezzogiorrno, which is the border area fascinating or alarming between Europe and the ‘others’, and to continue to the Levant, the house of the ‘other’. Particular attention will be given to Walter Colton; a Chaplain for the United States Navy, who before passing Gibraltar in 1832 stopped at Madeira and Terceira and described his journey in Ship and Shore in Madeira, Lisbon, and the Mediterranean.

 

 

4B. Early Modern Studies II

Chair: Dan Reff, Ohio State University

 

Dan Reff, “Luis Frois’ Tratado (1585) and the Idea of European/Mediterranean Culture”

In 1585 a Portuguese-Jesuit missionary in Japan named Luis Frois penned a treatise titled “Striking Contrasts in the Customs of Europe and Japan.” Reading Frois’ chapters on subjects such as food, architecture, drama, and religion it becomes apparent that “Europe” for Frois meant Mediterranean Europe, particularly Portugal, Spain, southern France, and Italy. This thoroughly Catholic part of Europe supplied the vast majority of Jesuits sent to Japan, particularly after 1570. However, Frois clearly spoke of European customs because he understood that his own country of Portugal had become part of a larger entity and cultural system. Lisbon, in particular, was as cosmopolitan as any city in Europe and was home to large numbers of merchants, craftsmen, artists, and adventurers from northern as well as southern Europe. Drawing from the Tratado, this paper offers a composite picture of "European culture" as per Frois. It is suggested that the discovery of whole new worlds and alien cultures during the sixteenth century seemingly compelled observers such as Frois to embrace larger affinities and identities, which endure, even if they remain contested.

 

Carol Beresiwsky, Kapiolani College, “Manila Galleons, Trade, and Diplomatic Relations

between Spain and Japan in the Early 17th Century”

During the era of the Manila Galleons (1565 to 1815), Spanish treasure ships plied the Pacific in round trip voyages from Acapulco, New Spain (Mexico today) to Manila, Philippines. Silver from the mines of the New World was traded for spices, pottery, lacquer ware, embroidered silks and other luxury goods for the Spanish and the European markets. In 1609 the galleon San Francisco was shipwrecked off the coast of Japan. Among the survivors was the outgoing Manila governor, Rodrigo de Vivero Velasco. Because of his status, he was received at the local Japanese prefecture, and also at the court of the Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu with great ceremony. Before returning to New Spain on a ship provided by the Japanese, he negotiated the first diplomatic and trade relations between Spain and Japan. The Relación (Account) of his experiences, required by the King of Spain, gives a glimpse of rural and courtly Japanese society in the early 17th century from the Spanish viewpoint. My talk will focus on the content of the Relación and include information about the historical period, and the impact of the galleon trade on the culture of today’s Mexico, when it was still a colony of Spain.

 

Darlene Abreu-Ferreira, University of Winnipeg, “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Seventeenth-Century Terceira”

Of the nine islands that make up the Azores Archipelago, Terceira and São Miguel are the largest and the most populated, and the two played important roles in the Portuguese trans-Atlantic trade in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In fact, a royal decree dated 29 March 1670 prohibited all ships coming from India from stopping at any other port than the one in Terceira or in Lisbon. The archipelago’s bishopry was located in Terceira’s capital, Angra do Heroísmo, as was the crown’s judicial and political representative, the Corregidor. Unfortunately few sets of records from the early modern period have survived from the Corregidor’s office, in the Azores as well as in other districts of mainland Portugal. My recent programme of research delves into questions of crime and conflict, and the mechanisms in place to resolve inter-personal disputes in the pre-modern era. In the case of early modern Portugal, the best examples of negotiated settlements in conflict resolution are found in the notarial collections. For this conference presentation, I will analyze some examples found in the district archives located in Angra do Heroísmo, examples that highlight some of the concerns of particular interest to the region in the seventeenth century.

 

Mark Emerson, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas, “A Question of Authority:

Denying and Defying the Power of the Portuguese Inquisition in Early Modern Portugal”

The paper to be presented is part of a larger project of new research on active resistance to the Inquisition in early modern Portugal. One of the key features of the power and authority of the Portuguese Inquisition was its ability to investigate arrest and convict anyone suspected of hindering or challenging the Inquisition’s authority or progress of inquisitorial activities. Thousands of individuals in early modern Portugal faced arrest and punishment for the sole transgression of impeding the authority of the Inquisition.


 This paper concerns a case study of individual defiance of an inquisitorial trial’s inquest and verdict. Salvador do Canto, a prominent Jesuit, served as rector in the University of Évora during the first two decades of the seventeenth century. He was a strong advocate of the mystical approach to faith and cultivated relationships with local visionaries. For many years, he heard the confessions of the young visionary Ines Gonsalves or de Jesus. He subsequently publicized and verified the sanctity of her visions. The Inquisition of Lisbon arrested Ines in 1618 and charged and convicted her as a false visionary and with making a pact with the devil. Despite her conviction, Friar Canto wrote a fiery pamphlet in a careful and detailed defense of Ines as a true visionary of God and dissected and condemned the Inquisition’s decision. In response, the Inquisition arrested Salvador do Canto for publicizing heresy and, especially, for his direct questioning of the Inquisition’s authority and his defiance of its resolutions.
This paper explores inquisitorial efforts to censor alternative views of the mystical experience, to define and delimit heresy, and punish those that question its authority in seventeenth-century Portugal.

 

4C. Medieval Studies I

Chair: Joan Dusa, Los Angeles

 

Luigi Andrea Berto, Western Michigan University, “Praising and Criticizing Venetian

Dukes in the Early Middle Ages”

The "Istoria Veneticorum" ("The History of the Venetians"), a chronicle attributed to John the Deacon, chaplain and ambassador of the Venetian Duke Peter Orseolo II (991-1008), is of fundamental importance for the reconstruction of early medieval Venetian history. In addition to being the only historical narrative of that period, it covers the entire early middle Ages (569-1008). The period in which this work was written is particularly relevant for Venetian history because it witnessed the restoration of the internal peace after many years of grave conflicts among aristocratic factions and the transformation of Venice into the leading power in the Adriatic Sea. The goal of this paper is to examine the way John the Deacon praised and criticized the Venetian rulers in his chronicle and to demonstrate that he did not limit himself to a mere recording of dates and events. Instead, by carefully employing the words—probably in order not to reopen recent wounds—the Venetian historian was able to express his opinions about the dukes who had governed his homeland.

 

Joan Dusa, “The Papal Doctrine of ‘Outside the Church There Is No Salvation’ in

Fourteenth-century Eastern Europe”

In fourteenth century Europe, the most powerful political entity was still the papacy. As such, the perceptions, judgments and identifications made by the Church dominated universal lay thinking as well. Though the Popes asserted sovereignty over all society, full acceptance did not encompass those outside the ecclesiastical reach. Due to the changing political landscape, threats to papal authority, and developments in theological thinking, the papacy made a more intense effort to bring those “outside the Church,” that is, schismatics, infidels, heretics, pagans and Jews, into the fold of “universal Christendom.” The objective was to convert the infidel and pagan, unite the schismatics with the Latin Church, and bring heretics and Jews to profess the true Faith, guiding them all to salvation.

The Popes issued directives to lay rulers all over Europe, (Hungary, Poland, Sweden, Spain, etc.) to force the outsiders into the Roman fold. This paper, specifically, will focus on the crusading demands placed on the Kings of Hungary to bring those extra ecclesiam in their realm and from the surrounding areas to come to obey the Roman Pontiff. The discussion will examine the terms, schismatic, infidel, heretic and pagan, in the context of the papal doctrine of “extra ecclesiam nulla salus,” and question how they came to connote ethnic identifications in fourteenth century Eastern Europe.

 

Krystle Perkins, Wayne State College, “Corporeal Creativity in Catalonian Notarial

Manuals”

Medieval Carnival was a dynamic festival that was both restrictive and liberating to citizens of medieval towns; these dual natures are clear in the rituals, activities, stories, and art connected to the celebration. Daily life in medieval Catalonia was a continual struggle for survival and also for social position. The yearly occurrence of Carnival was a rare time when the ordinary was shed for the unusual. This suspension of social status and corresponding rules allowed for both rich and poor to simultaneously push each other to the limit while testing the boundaries of power. The strain in urban society is quite visible in hundreds of pieces of marginalia in notarial documents from Girona, Spain dating from 1250-1500. These typical municipal records are decorated with usual marginalia that at times relate to the record itself and at others seem isolated from the text. A handful of records from the Arxiu Històric de Girona illustrate the delicate balance of power during the chaotic time of Carnival. These written and visual sources add to the understanding of medieval Carnival as well as open the door to understanding medieval urban society and the daily power struggle within a city.

 

Friday 11:15 AM – 1:15 PM

5A. Ancient Mediterranean II

Chair: Susan O. Shapiro, Utah State University

 

Helen Dixon, University of Michigan, “Friend in Life, Symbol in Death: Understanding

Intentional Dog Burials from the Phoenician Levant”

A series of Iron Age Levantine Phoenician sites have yielded archaeological evidence of purposeful dog burials – eight in a 10th-8th century BCE cemetery at Khaldé, one under a broken vessel in the small salvage excavations at 5th-4th century BCE Tell el-Burak, and an “extended dog cemetery” found in excavations of the 6th-4th century BCE fortifications in Beirut. The 5th century BCE dog cemetery at Ashkelon, further south, produced more than 700 partial or complete dog burials, and has also been attributed to Phoenician influence. Because the Lebanese dog burials have not all been thoroughly published, this practice has not been examined in detail outside of discussion of the Ashkelon dog cemetery.

 

This paper examines intentional dog burial as a Mediterranean phenomenon, seeking to understand the Phoenician examples in light of the treatment of dogs at death (and their ritual associations in other contexts) in neighboring Mediterranean cultures. Examples from the Aegean, Anatolian, and Egyptian cultural spheres will be examined. Rather than seeing the Levantine burials as evidence for a Phoenician practice to be delineated on a purely “ethnic” basis, a more complex continuum of Iron Age Mediterranean beliefs about the canine will be proposed as necessary to understand this phenomenon.

 

Işık Şahin, Trakya University, “Dedications to Meter from Lydia: The Epithets of Meter”

The numerous votive inscriptions found in Lydia situated in western Anatolia, gives information about the gods who worshipped in the region. The Mother (Matar/Meter) Goddess of Anatolia known by many epithets (epitheton) in Lydia. Her cult was particularly prominent in central and western Anatolia and spread from there through the Greek and Roman world. This study aimed to bring together the epithets of Meter used in Lydia. In this study 145 dedication inscriptiones dated mostly to the second B.C. and 35 different epithets of Meter are collected. Eight epithets of Meter such as Aliane and Matyene were derived from a toponym name. Other epithets were derived from a name of person such as Adiassopoulou (?), from a name of the mountain such as Sipylos Mountain or from the meaning of unknown names such as Akraia.

 

Jan-Marc Henke, Centre of Mediterranean Studies (ZMS), Ruhr-Universität Bochum,

“Network Theory and Foreign Offerings in Greek Sanctuaries of the 7th and 6th Centuries

B.C.E: Evidence of ‘Trans-Mediterranean Networks’?” 

Archaeologists emphasize the significance of finds of non Greek provenance in different Greek sanctuaries or cemeteries of the 7th and 6th B.C. as evidence of intensified Trans-Mediterranean communication between the emerging Greek city-states and especially Anatolia and the Near East. The sanctuary of Hera on Samos provides a compelling amount of such objects, once offered to the goddess and now found in modern excavations. Even if the provenance of its manufacture can be in most case identified and graphically recorded in impressive distribution-maps, the exact stages of their voyage and the identity of involved people remain largely uncertain. Explanations range between the agency of merchants, mercenaries or “diplomats” of different ethnicity. Network theory has perhaps the potential to contribute more to the illumination of this problem. This paper argues that it is necessary to focus on individual cases rather than search for universal paradigms. It aims at to retrace the possible biography of two objects found in the Heraion, whose transport appears to have followed two different but interwoven Trans-Mediterranean networks. One reflects a network of elite diplomacy; the other is the result of trade targeted at a wider range of involved customers and profit. The paper seeks to apply modern network theories onto archaeological material in order to provide a wider comprehension of Trans-Mediterranean communication in the past.

 

 

Ana M. Mitrovici, University of California, Santa Barbara, “To the Ends of the Earth:

Reception of Hercules in Roman Dacia”

This paper explores the worship of Hercules in the Roman province of Dacia (roughly modern day Romania) in the period following the Roman conquest under Emperor Trajan. Dacia’s strategic location beyond the limes facilitated the expansion of trade, movement of peoples, and the reception of religious beliefs from the east and west of the empire. This process was further encouraged by the connective role of the Danube River, a feature commonly referred to by archaeologists as the great “corridor” of Europe. Far from serving as a barrier, the Danube connected provinces throughout the empire and linked inland regions through its system of tributaries. In this paper I explore the military’s influence on the development of Hercules’ role as a healer in Dacia, particularly in the context of balneotherapy (hot water treatments for medicinal purposes). Throughout the Greco-Roman world, Hercules was known as a cross-cultural deity, transcontinental in his appeal, with temples and sanctuaries dedicated to him across the European continent and Northern Africa. From this cultural framework, I trace the development of Hercules from a god of Mediterranean origin to his reception in the province of Dacia and his significance in the daily life of communities established in the region after the Roman conquest.

 

5B. Art History & Archaeology

Chair: Patricia Zupan, Middlebury College

 

Patricia Zupan, “Frescoes of Siena Duomo’s Lower Church

(“Crypt,” c. 1265-1280) as Virtual Pilgrimage to the Holy Land”

In 1999, excavations of the so-called “Crypt” under Siena’s Duomo uncovered a well-preserved cycle of Old and New Testament frescos, by internal evidence considered collaboration among Siena’s most prominent pictorial artists of the 1260s and early 1270s, Guido di Graziano, Dietisalvi di Speme, and Guido da Siena. Presumed to date from the time of Nicola Pisano’s bas-relief Pulpit, c. 1265-1270, the Crypt cycle also shows clear evidence of the influence of Pisano’s epochal return to Roman naturalism.
My purpose will be to explore the devotional purpose of the Crypt cycle, a purpose directly related to its location on the still-extant Via dei Pellegrini, the urban tract of the Via Francigena in Siena. Scholars have recently concluded that Crypt’s then-underground location provides pilgrims a meditative antechamber before their ascent into the Duomo proper. In a setting both more intimate and more focused on the narrative and images themselves, the cycle thus testifies to a significant change in affective and participatory devotion, as a kind of “walking meditation” or “virtual pilgrimage” through the site.


Pilgrimage to Jerusalem itself became progressively difficult and dangerous after the city’s progressive fall to indigenous Muslim armies and rulers from 1244 on, making Rome the premiere Christian pilgrimage site in the Mediterranean. I thus will also explore how this cycle, along with others following in the late Duecento and Trecento, exists to provide an “alternative” or “virtual” pilgrimage to the Holy Land itself, whereby the devout re-imagine a Jerusalem in European and Italian terms, marked with prominently, contemporary, Duecento Italian architectural and urban settings.

 

 

 

Barbara J. Watts, Florida International University, “Dante, Simony, and Sixtus IV and the

Brancacci Chapel: Filippino Lippi’s Disputation between St. Peter and Simon Magus before

Nero

This paper will offer a new interpretation of Filippino Lippi’s fresco of the Disputation between St. Peter and Simon Magus before Nero in the Brancacci Chapel, Sta. Maria del Carmine, Florence (ca. 1480-85). It will situate the fresco’s subject within the thematic context of the cycle that Masaccio and Masolino began in the 1420s, and will show that Filippino’s treatment of the subject made his representation of St. Peter’s confrontation with Simon Magus particularly relevant to its Florentine audience of the 1480s. Specifically, it will address the striking similarity of Filippino’s rendering of Simon Magus to portraits of Dante Alighieri, and proffer a reason for this unusual use of Dante’s visage, using memory theory as practiced in antiquity and in the Early Modern period. The likeness of Dante in the guise of Simon Magus, I will argue, was intended to trigger the spectator’s memory of Dante’s Inferno XIX, in which those guilty of simony are incarcerated, and in which the poet vilifies the simoniacal popes of his day (Nicolas III, Bonifice VII, Clement V). Dante’s text, I argue, would prompt the viewer to think of papal simony in his/her own day, particularly the papacy of Sixtus IV (1471-84). Sixtus, the enemy of the Medici, who placed Florence under interdict following the Pazzi Conspiract (1478), was, according to Florentine denunciations of him, a false shepherd elected simoniacally, who had prostituted the chair of St. Peter. In short, in Filippino’s painting, poetic memory mediates between the worlds of text and image, offering the spectator a vision of the past that, in Dantean fashion, speaks passionately to the present.

 

António Félix Flores Rodrigues, University of the Azores, “Megalithic Discoveries in the Azores”

The megalithic constructions in Western Europe and the Mediterranean were erected during the Neolithic or Copper Age. Megalithic tombs are found in Europe, from the Northern Sea coasts to the south of Spain and Portugal. No megalithic structures, or structures that resemble megalithic tombs, were found until now in the Azores islands.


The recent Terceira Island megalithic findings seem to be a paradox, since the islands where discovered by the Portuguese navigators in the XV century, and historically, no people where found living in the Azores. Geographically, the Azores are located about 1,500 km west of Lisbon, and about 1,900 km southeast of Newfoundland, and geologically were never bounded to the mainland. If these findings are from the Bronze Age, it means that the people from the megalithic culture successfully travelled in the open sea without the help of maps or other known navigation tools.


We have also found rock art at the mentioned megalithic site, with representations close to those dated back to the Bronze Age. The present article compares the megaliths findings in the Azores with those known in Europe. A question remains: Are these findings from prehistory, or an imitation of prehistory made by the Portuguese?

 

Antonieta Costa, University of Oporto, “The Phoenician Sanctuaries of Terceira Island:

Symbolic Interpretation”

History is being rewritten everywhere in the world, as well as in the Azores, where archaeological remains from different cultures are being brought to new understandings, although finding great difficulties of acceptance.

Mont Brazil, a peninsula in front of Angra, the south coast of Terceira Island, was apparently chosen by Phoenicians as a sanctuary. The hypothesis is based on similarities found between the symbolism used to represent Carthaginian goddess Tanit (Astarte of the Phoenicians) and the trapezoidal design of two caves found there.

 

5C. Language, Linguistics, & Lexicography

Chair: Anita Herzfeld, University of Kansas

 

Anita Herzfeld, “Lunfardo: The Argentine Catalyst of the Creolization of European

Operas”

Lunfardo, the popular speech of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is the rich language used by ordinary speakers to express themselves. It is in effect a koine—a regional dialect that has become the common dialect of a larger area. It has spread from the capital to inland, and has even reached other neighboring nations, such as Paraguay and Uruguay. But lunfardo is not only the dialect that nourishes the speech of the average “porteño,” it is also the praxis of the literary composition which saw its most well-known beginnings in the lyrics of tangos. From the lyrics of tangos, the popular imagination has jumped to similar dramatic plots as those immortalized by operas. Uniquely so (although never performed in public) a speaker and writer of lunfardo, Elsa Rossi Raccio, in “Las minas de la opera,“ has taken upon herself the ominous task to translate the lyrics of some operas to lunfardo, to show the creolization of the characters and their interpretation of universal emotions through their dialect. Excerpts from three European operas, “La Traviata,” “Carmen,” and “Lucia de Lammermoor” will be played and analyzed to show the reinterpretation of the original language into lunfardo, so as to depict the characters’ sorrowful preoccupations as seen through the lens of the creole dialect and imaginary.

 

Paul M. Chandler, University of Hawaii, “Mejoremos la enseñanza del vocabulario”

This presentation examines means of improving the systematic instruction of vocabulary in the Spanish as a foreign language classroom by applying what we know from research in first and second language vocabulary learning. Spanish examples will be applicable to other languages.

Kathryn Klingebiel, University of Hawaii, “The Alienability Difference: New Evidence

from French”

Dictionaries and grammars of French yield a small set of French nouns, adjectives, and verbs that give every sign of paralleling the distinction between alienable and inalienable possession, as found, for example, in Polynesian languages such as Hawaiian.


 This is the distinction between objects which one can either choose or not choose to possess, such as alienable objects (a hat, a book) versus inalienable body parts or grandparents. In Hawai`ian the categories of alienable and inalienable possession are fully grammaticalized: first, in the system of –a– and –o– possessive adjectives: ka`u puke ‘my book’ (alienable) / ko’u lima ‘my hand’ (inalienabel) and second, through use of prepositions a and o: nā iwi a Pua 'Pua's bones (e.g., the chicken bones she is eating)' nā iwi o Pua 'Pua's [own] bones'
 
This paper illustrates the alienability difference in French with some new evidence, e.g., Fr. cadavéreux ‘cadaverous’ (like a cadaver, implying a comparison) / cadavérique ‘cadaveric’ (of or belonging to a cadaver). Our explanatory framework gains in strength by moving beyond the strict sense of ‘inalienable’ to include what is ‘intrinsic' or 'inherent’ and even further yet, to what is sometimes termed 'universal' aspect, as illustrated by the difference between Fr. malade ‘(temporarily) sick’ and maladif ‘(permanently) sickly’. The French material comes into sharp focus if we broaden our understanding of ‘possession’ to include qualities or characteristics with which an object or person is possessed, whether ‘intrinsically’, ‘inherently’, or ‘permanently’.


This new approach allows us to relate these lexical contrasts like cadavéreux / cadavérique to three other grammatical structures: (i) possession of body parts, which is traditionally cited with reference to inalienable possession in French; (ii) subjective vs. objective genitive, as illustrated by the above pair: nā iwi a Pua 'Pua's bones (that she is eating)’ / nā iwi o Pua 'Pua's [own] bones' and (iii) relational adjectives, e.g., nucléaire ‘nuclear [pertaining to the nucleus]’, which appear by their very nature to express a relationship of possessive or belonging.
Robert Lafont, the late great linguist and man of letters from the south of France, provided an insight into the motivation for the phonetic distinction between –a- and –o- in Hawai`ian possessives, positing that the velar vowel –o– is better suited to expressing the inalienable because it is produced further back in the throat, closer to the interior of the body.
The new evidence for alienability in French offered here is far from systematic, while the Hawai`ian system dividing the entire world into two classes is systematically and consistently observed in the grammar. However, an approach through Hawai`ian to pairs like Fr. cadavérique/cadavéreux does have the advantage of explaining contrasts between items commonly listed in “dictionaries of difficulties of the French language”, items which apparently continue to mystify the French as well as those of us who study this eternal language.

 

Friday 3:00 PM – 5:00 PM

 

6A. Travel and Empire

Chair: Russell Scott Valentino, Indiana University

 

Russell Scott Valentino, Indiana University, “A Tale of Two Cities: Culture and Identity at

the Edges of Empire”

This paper explores historical parallels between the late imperial cities of Trieste and St.

Petersburg. These are modern commercial and governmental centers that emerged quickly and by imperial decree. Their location on the physical outskirts and at the temporal boundaries of the respective Romanov and Hapsburg monarchies, and, most intriguingly, their respective urban “myths” (the artificial, the ghostlike, the schizophrenic)—make of them a suggestive comparative topic for coming to a fuller understanding of the fascination that the two centers exercised particularly during the Modernist cultural flowering of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This paper sets out the contours of a larger study, with particular emphasis on the confluence of literary and architectural myth making.

Christos Theofilogiannakos, University of California, San Diego, “The Perennial

Periphery: Culture, Identity and Politics on the Ionian Islands”

The study of borderlands provides a unique historical perspective on the agency of marginalized communities in the Mediterranean. This paper focuses on the Ionian Islands and their eventual incorporation into the Kingdom of Greece in 1864. Fundamentally the Ionian Islands were a borderland par excellence and exhibited some of the key characteristics of a borderland society, especially cosmopolitanism and cultural hybridity. The central goal of the paper, then, is to explore the social ramifications of boundary changes on people living in a border region by incorporating a new analytical framework, “island borderlands”. It argues that islands were central in the exchange and interchange, circulation and dissemination of ideas from the West.

 

They were also central in the emergence of national identity. This paper uses the Ionian Islands as a case study for the examination of the transmission, circulation and transformation of ideas, politics and economic systems in the Mediterranean. The Islands incorporated an innovative network for the exchange of ideas that meant they did not simply imitated their imperial rulers but borrowed ideas and systems that were relevant to local beliefs and politics. The project offers new answers to Greek historiographical questions about national identity, politics, and nation state formation.

 

Nuno Ornelas Martins, University of the Azores, “Power, Maritime trade, and the Change

from a Mediterranean-centered Economy towards an Atlantic-centered Economy”

Mainstream economics tends to neglect Adam Smith’s claim that the division of labor is limited by the extent of the market, and takes division of labor and supply factors to be the driving engine of economic development. However, the role of trade and commerce, that is, of demand, is essential for geographical specialization and division of labor, and the causal relation also works in the opposite direction. Furthermore, political and military power, often forgotten in economic analysis, played a great role in the establishment of markets for commerce and trade. And since maritime transportation of goods has typically been the more efficient method of transportation throughout history, geographical locations connected by water can then be seen as promising objects of study, with an organic logic of their own, which cannot be fully captured by approaches which fail to note the integrated nature of systems connected by water. In this context, fields like Mediterranean Studies or Atlantic History, which have received more attention in recent times, constitute promising fields of research, by focusing more directly on a system connected by water. The present article addresses the formation of economic systems in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic from this perspective.

 

6B. Art History II

Chair: Cássio da Silva Fernandes, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)

 

Ana Duarte Rodrigues, FCSH, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, “The Importance of Gregorio

de los Rios’ Treatise for the Mediterranean Garden

This paper seeks to explore the importance for Mediterranean gardens of the book Agricultura di Jardines (1592) by Gregorio de los Rios, the physics and gardener of the Spanish king Philip II at the royal villa of Aranjuez. This book has circulated in Portugal by then. The values of sightseeing, colors, odors, sounds and of some specific botanic species are for the first time approached in a treatise written in the Iberian Peninsula. Especially important is the fact of considering only ornamental flowers and plants, but although fruit trees are not included, orange trees are because they are considered ornamental. The description of each flower and its color, the absolutely necessity of jasmine in gardens because of their smell, as well as of nightingales because of their sound, but also on the statements he does on orange trees, turn this book into one of the most complete theoretical work on 16th century Mediterranean and Iberian garden.
Finally, we want to cross the theoretical statements of Gregorio de los Rios’ treatise with some other Italian and French treatises of the same period and with Mediterranean gardens evaluated as examples of Renaissance Mediterranean gardens.

 

Cássio da Silva Fernandes, “Jacob Burckhardt, historiador da arte: os colecionadores no

Renascimento italiano” [“Jacob Burckhardt, Art Historian: Collectors in the Italian

Renaissance”]

There is a deep identification between Italian Renaissance, conceived as historical period, and the name of the Suisse historian Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1897). Formed by the lessons of the scholars responsible by the consolidation of the Historical Science at the University of Berlin during the 19th Century, Burckhardt maintained for all his life a contact with the most diversified sources from that period. The product of his studies had such an important significance in this context, that is almost impossible to think on Italian Renaissance, as a unitary historic moment, without doing reference to Burckhardt, so the conception and the formal aspect were originally due to his discovery. This discovery became a reality with the publication in 1860 of his most famous book, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (The Culture of the Renaissance in Italy). But the book that summarized his discovery was not an isolate production among his works. It was actually the first result of a work that occupied him for several decades, revealing that the historical discovery of Burckhardt gave up a long process, until the last years of his life. So, after the establishment of the chair of Art History at the University of Basel, Burckhardt is dedicated to systematically study the art-historical, composing, in two stages, a series of manuscripts on Italian Renaissance painting. In the first step, it makes up the manuscript entitled Die Malerei Inhalt und nach Aufgaben (The painting According to the Topics and Tasks). In the second part of this study, between May 1893 and December 1895, the historian conceived three long manuscripts: "The altarpiece" (Das Altarbild), "The portrait in Italian painting" (Das Portrait in der italienischen Malerei) and "collectors "(Die Sammler). These manuscripts contain the content of his ultimate intention to conceive Italian Renaissance painting, as he himself said in different occasions, according to "themes and tasks “and "the means and capabilities." Burckhardt has even defined his own role in the art-historical study from a sentence, elaborated in the end of his life: "Die Kunst nach Aufgaben, das ist mein Vermächtnis" (The art according to the task, this is my legacy). With the phrase, the historian intended to reveal exactly his interest in Italian art of the Renaissance according to the origin of patronage and its role in the idealization of the works. It was a way of approaching the world of artists, or the peculiarities of work in the workshops of craftsmen and the relationship with patrons, included therein often the role of scholars counselors in the composition of the work plan and even of the iconography, so he privileged the material knowledge of works of art, the way they had been created, collected and evaluated. In this sense, we intend to focus on the text "The Collectors", with the focus mainly on two aspects: first, in an attempt to understand how Burckhardt frames the study of the collectors in his big project to conceive together art and culture of Renaissance in Italy, and second, in order to understand how the text of Burckhardt on the collectors can open a field of Renaissance studies on collection and patronage in art history.

 

Jennifer Roberson, Sonoma State University, “An Uneasy Coexistence: The Islamic

Monuments of Cordoba in the 20th Century”

Although parts of Spain were under the leadership of Muslim rulers for over 700 years, during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, Catholicism was Spain’s state religion. Franco envisioned a return to a Golden Age where the people were united by their Catholic faith. However, at the same time, he did promote close connections with Morocco when seeking support in the Civil War and he courted Arab-Islamic leaders when Spain was refused membership in the U.N. During these periods, Spain’s Islamic past, which had largely been disregarded, became a source of curiosity. While many still sought to minimize the impact Islam had had on Spanish culture, an atmosphere of better mutual understanding was promoted. This was evident in the treatment of some of the Islamic monuments, most notably the Great Mosque of Cordoba. Although re-consecrated as a Catholic cathedral in 13th century, during Franco’s reign Muslim diplomats were given tours of the mosque and allowed to pray. Following the Franco’s death, a new constitution was established, religious freedom guaranteed, and Islam in Spain was officially recognized. Given the new environment, one might expect an increased interest in Spain’s Islamic past. To an extent this did occur. However, at the same time, when confronted with a growing Muslim community, uneasiness with the Islamic past also emerged. At the Great Mosque of Cordoba, the question of allowing Islamic prayer became a source of tension. The control of other monuments, especially a derelict convent that had once been a mosque, sparked debate. This paper examines the reception of the Islamic monuments of Cordoba in the late 20th century and the controversies that arose in the post-Franco era.

 

6C. Mediterranean Cultural Identities

Chair: Simona Wright, The College of New Jersey

 

Simona Wright, “Mediterranean Tales: Italy and the Other”

In the last few decades Italy has experienced firsthand the phenomenon of migration. From country of emigration Italy has turned into a sought after destination for Africans, Asians, and South Americans. The large number of immigrants, legal and illegal, has transformed the social fabric of Italy and is now transforming its cinema. The paper will analyze the movies that have been released in the last 10 years that deal with the journey on the Mediterranean. In particular, the paper explores the theme of immigration through the lenses of Emanuele Crialese's Terraferma, Mohsen Melliti's Io, l'altro, and Daniele Del Grande's Mare Chiuso. Special attention will be given to the cinematic representation of themes such as Alterity/Otherness, Solidarity, and Resistance.

A. Bahadir Kaynak, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, “Does Political Trilemma Exist?

Lessons from Turkish and Brazilian Experiences in the Last Decade”

Dani Rodrik’s now famous definition of political trilemma claims that economic globalization, political democracy and sovereign nation-states are mutually irreconcilable. Especially after the last wave of globalization starting in the 1980s, governments found it increasingly harder to conduct economic policies autonomously and saw their options constrained by the market dynamics. Neoliberal market reforms, adopted after expiration of the embedded liberalism of Cold War years, integrated national markets to the web of international market forces. Eventually, observers saw nation-state’s discretionary power curtailed or converted into a competition state to mobilize the economy for survival in the global economic struggle. This dynamic, as could be seen from the crisis in Europe, triggered forces for further integration and transfer of authority from national governments to supra-national entities. However, the model’s explanatory power for the recent developments in emerging markets should also be tested. Countries like Brazil and Turkey have not only adopted market reforms in the last decades but are also showing a tendency towards further democratization as peripheral political forces now find their place at the center of political stage. Thus, the question now becomes whether there are specific circumstances where democratic politics and economic globalization can be reconciled. Or under certain constraints posed by global economy, democratic politics and national-sovereignty are adopting themselves to the new conditions?

 

James Nikopoulos, Nazarbayev University, “Greece’s Florentine Muse” 

Greece in the 19th and early 20th century found itself confronted by a sudden identity crisis. Its slowly gained independence from under Ottoman rule forced a reconsideration of what constituted this very young country in light of this very old concept of Hellas. One of the more polemical issues involved what would become of the Greek language. A split formed between those who espoused the living variant of the language and those who advocated for katharevousa, an artificial Atticized form of Greek invented in the nineteenth century. For those who advocated the demotic, the figure who continued to surface was Dante Alighieri, whose own espousal of Italian over Latin made him an example to be followed. My paper examines the parallels between the linguistic and political situation of modern Greece and medieval Italy, aiming to account for why a foreign model would prove so relevant to a debate on the Greek language during the early years of the Greek state.

 

 

 

Saturday, June 1st

Saturday 10:00 AM – 12:00 noon

7A. Current Philosophical Perspectives [Perspectivas da Filosofia na Actualidade]

Chair: Álvaro Monjardino, University of the Azores

 

Marta Dias Barcelos, University of the Azores, “Person and Body: Rethinking Today an

Old (Bio)ethical Problem”

The concept of "person" analyzed in this paper is thought to be part of the anthropological and philosophical legacy of ancient Greece, and emerges as a corporal and spiritual entity, which determines its singularity at the level of community. Nevertheless, one of the challenges emerging at present is the impact that science can have on the bios, manipulating what was once considered natural. For this reason, the scientific intervention in the human body holds an important place in current philosophical inquiry. More precisely, this is expressed through an ethical consideration concerning the scientific applications of artificial manipulation of human life and systematization of principles designed to safeguard the integrity of the person.

 

Josélia Ribeiro da Fonseca, University of the Azores, “Citizenship: Passive Antiquity,

Active Contemporaneity?”

To the origin of citizenship concept is associated an active dimension. In Ancient Greece of the fifth century BC, the historical context in which it first appears, citizenship was conceptually understood as the capacity to participate in the life of the polis, in order to the welfare of the community. Although this capacity of participation has assumed restricted and exclusivist character, just was recognized the political right of participation to the Athenian male, is undeniable a connotation of activity that is implied in the concept of citizenship.

 

For different reasons, in the Middle Ages and the Modern Age there is a depreciation of active dimension of citizenship in favor of a protectionist policy practice, in which was submitted the citizens’ rights of participation to the protective power of the Seigneur or the State, which them assurance their safety and well-being in case of war.

The French Revolution, 1789, was a milestone for the reconceptualizationof the citizenship concept and, consequently, to resume the practices of participation, under the aegis of the principles of equality and freedom and safeguarded by a language of rights.

 

In terms of citizenship, contemporaneity is marked by struggle and by affirmation of a democratic perspective, which restores the active dimension of citizen’s participation, recognizing everyone, without exception, the right to community intervention.

Thus, we ask and discuss the reasons why today – in the political, social and education domains – it appeals to the need of emergence of active citizenship. The deconstruction of this semantic redundancy requires that we reflect on the causes of the passivity of the citizens of the twenty first century, which, in our view, be explained by permissiveness and protectiveness of the State of Social Welfare and the lack of educational process, that promote the citizens' consciousness as integrated members of society with responsibilities in her.

 

Gabriela Castro, University of the Azores, “Phenomenology and Bio-Art”

A descrição eidética do acto cognitivo, levada a cabo por Husserl, revelou serem a intuição e a evidência os seus conceitos fundamentais e inseparáveis, que requerem uma nova abordagem fenomenológico-estética pois o objecto artístico alterou-se de modo significativo com o avanço científico-tecnológico, que a segunda metade do séc. XX conheceu. O objecto científico deixou de ser o “dado” e passou a ser o “construído”, isto é, o produzido ou o criado pela inter-relação existente entre o cientista e a sua investigação.Esta nova realidade projecta, não a diferença entre duas realidades, arte e natureza, mas a sua união, união que no séc. XXI encontra a sua expressão numa nova representação artística denominada bio-arte.

 

7B. Medieval Studies II

Chair: Joan Dusa, Los Angeles

 

Ellen Lorraine Friedrich, Valdosta State University, “Either/Neither—How the Beaver

Became a Medieval Model for Gender Ambiguity”

A marginal illustration of a beaver castrating itself at the bottom of the opening page of the copy of Guillaume de Lorris’s Romans de la rose (Romance of the Rose) in British Library Stowe MS 947 calls into question the nature of the commentary the maimed animal might offer on the thirteenth-century Old French Rose text. While Sylvia Huot argues that the marginalia intends to reflect upon castration thematics in the text,[1] I suggest that the mutilated mammal insinuates an indeterminate gender for the character below whose miniature it occurs.

 

Since classical times, Greek and Latin works on natural history have described the curious castrating behavior—or castrated state—of the beaver, usually asserting that the beaver either lacks testicles, or castrates itself to avoid hunters who chase it for its valuable male organs. My study situates the animal within the Physiologus and Romance bestiary traditions of other creatures exhibiting non-normative gender or sexuality. I examine how the narrative of the castrating castor gained purchase, and interrogate other reasons for the belief in the beaver’s intersex state. Finally, I relate the castor to the character in the Rose below whose illumination its sketch occurs, suggesting that the gender ambiguity of the beaver glosses and parallels that of the puzzling personage.

 

Glenn W. Olsen, University of Utah, “Sodomy’s Road from Anselm of Canterbury to

Albert the Great” 

In 2011 I published Of Sodomites, Effeminates, Hermaphrodites, and Androgynes: Sodomy in the Age of Peter Damian (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies) I am now at work on a follow-up volume covering the period from Anselm of Canterbury to Albert the Great. In this paper I propose to outline my overall analysis, and specifically what is the core of my argument concerning the changing conceptualization of sodomia during this period.

 

Adam J. Goldwyn, Uppsala University, “Seas, Coasts and Sailing Ships: Ecocritical

Approaches to the Mediterranean in the Medieval Romance” 

The proposed paper will apply contemporary developments in ecocritical theory to examine the literary construction and metaphorical significance of the Mediterranean in medieval romances. Romances were produced by writers from all across the Mediterranean basin, and the Sea itself, from the Strait of Gibraltar in the West to the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus in the East, often featured in these tales of adventure, love, travel and wandering.


 Applying a comparative perspective, the paper will examine the Mediterranean in, for example, the Old French Aucassin and Nicolette, about the Mediterranean wanderings of the French prince Aucassin and his Carthaginian beloved Nicolette; Boccaccio’s story of Alatiel in The Decameron, the daughter of a Muslim king shipwrecked in Italy, and the Byzantine Tale of Paris, in which the Trojan prince wanders the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean in pursuit of Helen. An examination of the frequent shipwrecks and tempests which wash the characters on strange coasts and among strange people will reveal much about the medieval attitude towards the Sea and its role in their lived experience and literary imagination.

 

7C. Turkish Music

Chair: Ufuk Serin, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi (Middle East Technical University),

Turkey

 

Zeynep Barut, State Conservatory of Music, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi (İTÜ), “An

Analysis of the Reflection of Turkish Music Culture on Western Music”

Music is an essential component of Turkish culture. As for the Turkish music culture, it is musical way of thinking and expression unique to Turkish people, which has lived up until today since the appearance of Turks on the stage of history. Turks have spread across a vast geographical area throughout history and have interacted with different music cultures. As a consequence, Turkish music culture has been nourished by various branches and has gained a rich structure. Turkish music has always been an object of interest and curiosity for researchers in terms of its sound system, "Makams", and the distinction of the rhythms used. We can see the traces of such a rich cultural heritage clearly in the Western World. In this paper, which examines the flow of our national culture from the East to the West, Western musicians who contributed to our global music heritage being influenced by Turkish music and their pieces will be presented.

 

Şerife Güvençoğlu, State Conservatory of Music, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi (İTÜ), “A

Master of Turkish Classical Music: Itri” 

His real name was Mustafa, and he was sometimes referred to as Buhurizade Mustafa Efendi. Mustafa Itri, more commonly known as Buhurizade Mustafa Itri, or just simply Itri was an Ottoman-Turkish musician, composer, singer and poet. Itri was a major exponent of Turkish classical music. He was born and grown up in İstanbul in the 17th century. Itri lived between 1640 and 1712, and is regarded as the master of Turkish classical music. He is believed to have been a Mevlevi, and composed religious music for this order. He lived through the times of five Ottoman Sultans. He became well known during the time of Mehmet IV. His compositions always won approval of the Sultans and he was usually the guest of the palace to perform his compositions. As with most composers of his day, Itri was also a poet. He used poetic forms based on the classical Ottoman school of poetry (Divan), as well as those based on syllabic meters identified with folk music and poetry. Unfortunately most of his poetry has not survived to this day. He was also interested in gardening. He was a very prolific composer with more than a thousand works. However, only about 40 of these survived to this day. Due to the 300th anniversary of musician Buhurizade Mustafa Itri’s death, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has declared 2012 the “International Itri Year.”

 

Fatma Gökdel, State Conservatory of Music, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi (İTÜ), “Non-

Muslim Composers in Turkish Music Tradition”

A great variety of peoples living within the Ottoman Empire all contributed towards the dominant Turkish music culture. The separate character of the non-Muslim societies displays some very interesting aspects. Creating masterpieces especially in the areas of architecture, handicrafts and music, the members of these communities maintained especially close ties to the cultural environment of the Empire. The Minorities and non-Muslim musicians both learnt lessons from Turkish teachers and began to give lessons to Turks after they specialized in their art. There were even some who became teachers of that time’s statesmen. At the top of this category were the Armenians, Greeks and Jews. When minority and non-Muslim musicians became masters in both Turkish musical instruments and in vocals, they not only shared their art with the people and the communities with whom they shared the same beliefs but also they shared it with the general public. Though not represented as heavily and the area of performance, there were non-Muslim composers who produced masterpieces of music. This tradition has continued into the Republican period as well, with many artists today producing works in Turkish style and musical approach.

 



[1] Sylvia Huot, The Romance of the Rose and Its Medieval Readers: Interpretation, Reception, Manuscript Transmission (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 275, 277.