Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Rotes Feld Campus, Rotenbleicher Weg 67
1A. Portuguese History
Chair: Bill M. Donovan, Loyola College in Maryland
“Noble Brothers-in-Law in Love during the Reign of João IV (1640-1656)”
Francis A. Dutra, University of California, Santa Barbara
During the reign of João IV (1640-1656), Portugal’s first Bragança monarch, more people—nine (one-third of them clergy) were executed for sodomy than during any other reign. (During the history of the Portuguese Inquisition a total of twenty-five or twenty-six men were executed for the pecado nefando as sodomy was called). But nobles seem to have been treated much more leniently. Four stand out during João’s reign. D. Rodrigo da Camara, 3rd Count of Vila Franca; D. Filipe de Moura, member of the Portuguese Overseas Council, 1650-1653; D. Álvaro Manuel de Noronha, Senhor of Atalaia, and his brother-in-law, Francisco Luis de Oliveira e Miranda, Morgado of Oliveira. The Count of Vila Franca and D. Filipe de Moura have been studied in some detail. D. Álvaro Manuel and Francisco Luis have been neglected—except for eleven pages on the former in Braamcamp Freire’s Brasões da Sala de Sintra. Thus the purpose of this paper. D. Álvaro Manuel de Noronha, a knight and commander in the Order of Santiago, was a younger brother of D. António Manuel de Noronha, 3rd count of Atalaia, both sons of D. Pedro Manuel, 2nd Count of Atalaia. D. Álvaro would marry D. Ines de Lima e Távora, daughter of the Morgado of Caparica. D. Álvaro’s brother-in-law was twenty-six year old Francisco Luis de Oliveira, Morgado of Oliveira, a knight in the Order of Christ. On 10 September 1644, both D. Álvaro, who claimed he was twenty-three-years-old, and his brother-in-law visited the Lisbon tribunal of the Inquisition and confessed to sins of sodomy with each other and with third parties. Both were probably on the verge of being arrested by the Inquisition. But by voluntarily confessing, they were given absolution—sins of sodomy were reserved to the Inquisition—and told to sin no more, with a warning that relapses would incur severe penalties. However, on 6 July 1651, D. Álvaro was back to the Inquisition to say that he had relapsed, this time with four new partners, but neglected to mention that a fifth partner had been his brother-in-law. A week later, possibly afraid that D. Álvaro might have denounced him, Luis Francisco also appeared before the Inquisition and confessed that he and D. Álvaro had committed new acts of sodomy, both active and passive, beginning about four or five years earlier.
“The Language of Religious Contestation in Late Eighteenth-Century Portugal: Blasphemy and Propositions Denounced to the Lisbon Inquisition”
David Higgs, University of Toronto, Canada
The 1774 Regimento (byelaws) of the Inquisition called on faithful Catholics to denounce those who spoke ill of the dogma of the Church. This paper examines some of the kinds of statements which were forwarded to the Inquisition. Some of these went forward to preliminary enquiries and some led to formal trials. Others were discarded.
“‘An Inconvenient Murder’ Legal Punishment and Noble Prerogative in Early Modern Portugal”
Bill M. Donovan
The study of crime and criminal activity in early modern Portugal remains in its early stages. Future progress is likely to be slow owing to the 1755 earthquake and later French invasion, which destroyed massive amounts of critical source materials pertaining to early modern crime and justice. In significant ways, early modern Portuguese society defined crime and criminal activity differently from its continental and English counterparts. This paper focuses on the relationship between crime and noble prerogative through examining several criminal episodes involving the Portuguese elite. What were the punishments for their actions? Why did the crown pardoned some individuals and but not others? What, if anything limited the crown’s power to punish or pardon individuals?
“German Merchant Families and the Porto Wine Trade”
Pedro de Brito, Porto, Portugal
In 1654 the Portuguese government was driven to a Treaty with Cromwell s England that, as Wallis Chapman wrote in 1907, put the English trading with Portugal, or residing there in a situation more advantageous than that of the Portuguese themselves. In fact British merchant families began to settle down in Porto by the mid-seventeenth century and they remained down to the present day. Wine from Porto became the Englishman s wine and stayed so until recently. German merchant families came also to Porto at the same time. The local wine never became the Germans favorite, because there had always been a significant local production in the German territories, and also because in comparison with England, German internal trade could not benefit from a barrier free market until the 1834 Zollverein. Nevertheless wine exports to Germany took place as well as import of varied goods, and families like the Henkels, Amsincks, Burmesters and Köpkes were and still are, either through their male lines, or through female lines descendants, significantly envolved in this City s social and economic life. This paper purports to be an introduction to the early history of these German families, which strangely enough has not yet been written.
1B. Spanish Literature
Chair: Roxana Recio, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska
“Traducción y siglo XVI: Petrarca y Ariosto”
“Traducción y siglo XVI: Petrarca y Ariosto”
Jerónimo de Urrea traduce la obra de Ariosto, Orlando furioso, en el siglo XVI, concretamente en 1545. El manuscrito que se ha consultado pertenece a la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid. La traducción ha sido editada en dos ocasiones con cambios sustanciales, la primera en 1988 por Francisco José Alcántara y la segunda, en dos volúmenes, en 2002 por Cesare Segre y Nieves Muñiz. Existe una traducción al catalán hecha por Bonaventura Vallespinosa de 1983. El texto italiano utilizado es de Cesare Segre, publicado en 1976. A partir de unos pasajes del manuscrito, se ha revisado tanto el texto de Alcántara como el que presentan Segre y Muñiz. Se lleva a cabo un análisis de cuestiones como traducción, recreación y adaptación y se compara con la traducción en catalán, que sorprendentemente rompe con la tradición castellana de seguir a Urrea y se centra en el texto base. Lo más destacable es la supresión de capítulos y la mezcla de unos capítulos con otros. Otro ejemplo lo encontramos en la traducción inglesa de John Harrington en 1591. Es curioso que a diferencia de Segre y Muñiz, el texto de Harrington se ha respetado y la edición presenta unas notas muy bien hechas y que se ciñen a la traducción. Harrington es un ejemplo de lo que hablamos de Urrea. A principios del siglo XX, Carl Appel se preguntaba cómo era posible que esto sucediera en la traducción del Triunfo de Amor de Petrarca hecha por Alvar Gómez de Ciudad Real. Haciendo un cotejo con el original italiano, para aclarar el método de traducir de Jerónimo de Urrea, se lleva a cabo una comparación con la traducción de Harrington y con el sistema de traducción de Alvar Gómez de Ciudad Real, que, como se sabe, entre otras libertades también suprime un capítulo de su traducción del Triunfo de Amor de Petrarca. Es curioso que nadie haya puesto en contexto este método de traducción y, sobre todo, que, al enfocarse la cuestión de traducción como algo meramente lingüístico, no se haya visto ya establecida una corriente de traducción nueva y diferente, donde los traductores eran independientes y presentaban sus textos según criterio propio y de acuerdo con su público.
“Ilustración, economía y relaciones hispano-portuguesas en Viajes por la América meridional de Félix de Azara”
Enrique Rodrigo, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska
En la obra de Félix de Azara, publicada originalmente en Francia en el año 1803, se recogen las observaciones sobre la geografía, la naturaleza y la sociedad de las provincias de Buenos Aires y de Paraguay que llevó a cabo desde 1781 a 1801. Su obra busca un rigor científico, sobre todo en aquello que se refiere a las descripciones geográficas. En el capítulo titulado “De las gentes de color,” Azara da cuenta de la distribución de la sociedad en castas. Con referencia al trato que reciben las castas inferiores, a primera vista, esta descripción muestra el lado humanitario de Azara, pues resalta el buen trato que él mismo da a sus esclavos, alguno de los cuales no quiso recibir su libertad sino por la fuerza. Esta actitud se complementa con lo bien que son tratados los esclavos en Paraguay, donde nunca se les somete a tratos violentos, se les viste y alimenta bien, y se les cuida en su vejez. La descripción se complementa con la disposición del Consejo de Indias en que se negaba a devolver a un esclavo a otro país extranjero, citando que “la libertad era un derecho natural sobre el que las convenciones humanas no podían tener fuerza,” y el lamento de que un gobernador de Paraguay la incumpliera a causa de sus buenas relaciones con los portugueses. Por otro lado, la narración de las penalidades a que se ven sometidos los negros libres por parte de las autoridades, así como la consideración de que de la unión de razas distintas salen personas física e intelectualmente superiores a los de una raza acentúan la ausencia de prejuicios europeos en su descripción. No obstante, en los métodos que se deben seguir para mejorar la economía del país es donde el rango inferior de las castas no europeas aparece en su desnudez. La existencia de la esclavitud va relacionada a la necesidad económica. De esta manera, al mismo tiempo que se elogia la actitud de los dueños de esclavos, se resalta que “nadie los necesita tanto como ellos” y que su generosidad con los esclavos redunda en un precio mayor de los jornales y de las manufacturas. En el mismo capítulo en el que tal defensa se hace de la libertad, la descripción supuestamente positiva que se hace de las mulatas refleja el estereotipo del objeto sexual: se muestran frescas de piel, dulces, y poco castas, y proporcionan placeres especiales. Los mulatos muestran todo su lado negativo, pues se dedican al juego de cartas, la borrachera y la trampa, aunque “los hay muy honrados.” Lo mismo ocurre en la actitud que demuestra el autor hacia los indios. Se lamenta en varias ocasiones de que se dejara de ir a la caza de los indios para reducirlos, pues eso causó el declive económico y político del imperio español, y echa la culpa de esta situación a los jesuítas y sus métodos pacíficos. Su actitud humanitaria hacia los indígenas contrasta igualmente con las semejanzas que encuentra entre los indios y los cuadrúpedos. Así pues, las concepciones ilustradas de Félix de Azara hacia la explotación racional de los recursos económicos chocan claramente con sus convicciones humanitarias, y nos muestran cuál es la cadena de prioridades que figura en su ideología. Las castas inferiores seguían siéndolo a la hora de contemplar las necesidades de la sociedad para el futuro.
“Beyond Classical Rhetoric: Revisiting Juan Manuel’s Treatises Inner Sprache”
Carmen Benito-Vessels, University of Maryland, College Park
The entire corpus of Medieval Spanish poetry and the everyday Medieval Spanish language, as “spoken” by characters of the diverse social strata, share lexicalized expressions that presuppose specific references to conduit, grammatical and linguistic metaphors, and all of them allow a detachment from the depiction of reality and a mental transferring to the realm of the figurative. Juan Manuel’s textual narratives dealing with historical data (Libro de las armas) or with social codes of conduct (Libro del caballero e el escudero) seek a close, tight depiction of reality—or of what, in his view, reality was supposed to be—. Both works, nevertheless, are overpopulated by terms and expressions geared toward a detachment of concrete representations. Linguistically speaking, the literal is avoided and the figurative is favored but the message is accurately conveyed. In other words, it seems that effective communication and rule implementation was very successfully achieved; as if there existed an implicit contract for mutual understanding and as if the terms of that contract were determined by culture, not by language. Cultivated scholars of the Castilian Middle Ages and up to the European Renaissance were well aware of the sensitive issue of the risk of altering textual meaning —either by scribal errors or by inaccurate translations from classical languages— but medieval scholars were mainly concerned with the translation of religious texts. Historically, we have studied the use of figurative medieval Castilian following classic and medieval rhetorical principles; what I propose, instead, is that that we follow cultural guidelines and broader definitions of figurative language. To be able to more faithfully delineate the poesis of Medieval Castilian, and to bring to the surface its inner Sprache, I suggest that we identify some of the parameters that determine its conceptual metaphors in the Middle Ages and that we analyze how they reflect and affect their cultural environment. In one of the foundational studies about this subject, Lakoff states that metaphoric expressions “are tied to metaphorical concepts in a systematic way, we can use metaphorical linguistic expressions to study the nature of metaphorical concepts and to gain an understanding of the metaphorical nature of our activities” (Lakoff, p.7). The vast majority of the fundamental metaphoric concepts, as states Lakoff, are organized according to principles deeply imbedded in culture; in my view, these concepts constitute a fundamental part of what once was named “inner Sprache.” Both, the Libro de las armas and the Libro del caballero e el escudero prepared the ideological grounds upon which Spanish society coined the concepts of chevalier, chivalry, chivalrous, and chivalresque that would lead to an idealistic culture and, eventually, to Cervantes’ opus magna.
1C. Getting Personal with Artists and Their Artworks: A Session to Honor Marilyn Stokstad
Chair: Mindy Nancarrow, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
“Close Encounters with Antonio del Castillo”
Art biography, when it is based solely on archival documents, and there are no personal letters or diaries to consult, and the artist cannot be interviewed, can be quite dry and lifeless. Baptismal and marriage documents, dowries, apprenticeships, and contracts for work, provide only a summary chronology for the artist, they do not produce the artist. This paper focuses on the role of the imagination and how it steps in to flesh out the documents. Specifically, it tells of a personal experience in Cordoba where I researched the life of Antonio del Castillo (1616-1668). This experience not only helped to give form and shape to the documents, it sustained me during a lonely period in my life when I was immersed in the solitary work of the archivist.
“From the Trenches, or How I Learned to Question Contemporary Conventions and Embrace My Inner Julia Roberts”
Beth S. Gersh-Nesic, New York Arts Exchange
Marilyn Stokstad’s Art History and Art: A Brief History set the standard for the students’ writing. Her accessible descriptions of individual works of art that open each chapter superbly model engaging and esasy-to-follow art history writing. While the online auxiliary material for Professor Stokstad’s books (and similar survey books) supports and expands on the students’ study of art history, this paper will argue that the textbook remains a crucial source for the student in terms of art history methodology and writing style. On a personal note, the paper will defend the old-fashioned bluebooks exam, which assesses whether the student has mastered Stokstad content (and the professor’s personal view of that content) and is ably prepared to form an opinion of his or her own. It will be posited that the bluebook exam offers the most valuable form of communication between the student and the art history professor, especially given these days of “cut and paste” which blurs the lines between originality and plagiarism in that warhorse called “the term paper.”
M. Rebecca Leuchak, Roger Williams University, Bristol, Rhode Island
In the study of reliquaries, my work often brings me to church treasuries and crypts where access is arranged in negotiation with a keeper. Many times this exchange has led to interesting situations fraught with restrictions. In two past experiences, however, there were moments of great opportunity. My presentation recounts those separate encounters, thrust upon me, with works of art at idiosyncratic moments which provided evidence for the Deleuzian proposition of an aesthetics of affect. THose two situations, by contrast with many other quite different realities, give example of the object of encounters as fundamentally different from an object of recognition and provide example of the rupture and affirmation—two separate moments of experience—which in their conjunction lead to an ew understanding. They both creatively fostered contact with new worlds of thought, as Foucault so famously related in his own encounter with the Borges passage about categorization of animals in a Chinese encyclopedia. These cryptic experiences reveal the expressive potentialities of material objects and the idiosyncratic nature of each person’s encounters with the materiality of their subjects of scholarly investigation. The specificity of setting for these objects—whether entombed in the gallery case, or fully alive deep within a sacred space—powerfully dictate the terms of engagement we are given for any object of art historical interest.
Commentator: Marilyn Stokstad, University of Kansas, Lawrence
2A. Imagining and Building Communities: Towns and Identity in the Hispanic Kingdoms in the Middle Ages
Chair: José Antonio Jara Fuente, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca, Spain
“Power and Fiscality, Dividing the Social Body and Rebuilding the Community: Direct Taxation as an Instrument of Social Coercion and Cohesion”
José Antonio Jara Fuente
As in most cities and towns in late-medieval Western Europe, Castilian fiscality (royal, seigneurial and urban fiscality) developed over indirect taxes imposed on goods, services and sales. The adoption of a direct taxation differed from town to town, depending on a number of variables such as its economic resources and wealth, the composition of its social and power structure or the weight of the expenditures in the overall budget. Unlike many (although not most) Castilian towns, the city of Cuenca generally resorted to a balanced implementation of both models of taxation (direct and indirect taxation). In so doing, urban authorities showed their ability while differentiating categories of citizens for tax reasons, to integrate all these groups in a common civic project. The aim of this paper is to analyze the objectives underlying these processes and their influence in the construction of models of urban political identity.
“The Converso Community: Forging an Identity among Jewish Converts in the Kingdom of Aragon”
Juan Antonio Barrio Barrio, University of Alicante, Spain
One of the most exceptional landmarks in Spanish medieval history is linked with the converso phenomenon, in other words, with the lives and experiences of those Jews who decided, for various reasons, to convert to Christianity, as their community was subject to systematic large-scale attacks in the Iberian Peninsula in 1391. Although the phenomenon of Jewish conversion to Christianity was not new in the Iberian Peninsula there had been a few conversions prior to that date this event differed in terms of the sudden and unexpected immersion of a large number of Jews in Christian society. Our aim is to expand the scope of study in relation to this issue and offer a multi-faceted view of the so-called converso problem, by analysing the members of the Jewish converso community, most of whom lived in towns and cities, in a wider context, that of urban societies, urban identities and the Peninsular urban systems of the fifteenth century. The idea behind studying urban identities is to discover the influence of anti-converso reactions felt by traditional Christian communities the so-called old Christians on the evolution of the conversos themselves, and in turn the changes that occurred as a result of this reaction in Peninsular urban societies, such as the increasingly strong identification between political and religious identity, and the strengthening of specific identities within each urban community, proto-national identities, ethnic identities, religious identities, etc.
“Fiscality in a Frontier Area: Albacete between the XIIIth and the XVth centuries”
David Igual Luis, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca, Spain
The territory of Albacete constituted at the end of the Middle Ages, in southern Castile, a frontier area by its proximity to the Crown of Aragon and to the Muslim Kingdom of Granada. In this context, the population of the zone had a quite unstable historical development. However, from the XIIIth century onwards, this space was divided in three sectors: Alcaraz and its territory, that pertained to the royal jurisdiction; the places of the Order of Santiago; and the lordship of Villena, that included towns like Albacete, Almansa, Chinchilla or Hellín. Until the XVth century, these three sectors consolidated progressively their legal and institutional image. In that image the definition of a fiscality was important, and numerous political, social and economic interests were concerned by this process. My contribution will analyse the construction of the fiscality in Albacete and its region, with three main objectives that will be studied by combining bibliographical and documental research: 1. To describe the formal characteristics of that fiscality; 2. To examine the conflicts that could take place around its construction; 3. To compare the fiscal reality of the territory of Albacete with other zones of Castile, in order to interpret the authentic significance of the realities that will be detected.
“Nobility and Urban Elites: Building Common Identities, Opposing Different Marks of Identification in Fifteenth-Century Castile”
Yolanda Guerrero Navarrete, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
With the two first Trastámaras, the principal lines of the monarchical programme of political centralization were outlined. This programme would be enforced during the second half of the XIVth and the XVth century. This process articulated, in the first place, around the “adequate joint of the different political groups,” due to the genesis and consolidation of a new referential frame for power relations that guaranteed the equilibrium, stability and consensus between monarchy and the political body, between the elites and the King. In the second place, around, the consolidation of an autonomous economic and financial platform linked to the thriving urban economies. And finally, around the development of an institutional apparatus, assuring the monarchical centralized government and articulating the participation of the political body in it. This is a rather important political background for the construction of urban identities, since it gave sound to the aspirations of urban elites and commonalties, in the framework of a very conflictive fifteenth century opposing an insatiable nobility to the monarchy.
2B. Language and Linguistics
Chair: Angel Felices, University of Granada, Spain
“Algerian Women’s Linguistic Attitudes and Sexual Taboos: A Sociolinguistic Analysis”
Mebtouche Nedjai Fatma Zohra, University of Tizi Ouzou, Algeria
In a multilingual setting, speakers construct linguistic attitudes depending on the underlying system of culture and representations of each language.The paper aims at presenting the results of a sociolinguistic survey in which informants were asked whether they could/could not speak about sexual taboos with an older lady in their mother tongue, Kabyle or Algerian Arabic and or in French which are languages used in daily situation. The findings of this investigation revealed four main attitudes. Firstly, the majority of informants showed convergence on stigmatizing linguistic attitudes towards their mother tongue(s) claiming that it was vulgar or ugly to refer to sexual taboos. Secondly, the linguistic inhibition disappeared almost totally when they used French. This could be explained by the representation resulting from the vision identifying the mother tongue with socialization and prohibition, and French with modernity and freedom of expression. (Grand Guillaume1983).Moreover, a few others tied their linguistic security /insecurity with the degree of formality, between hearer/speaker in terms of solidarity/ deference rather than with the languages used. Finally, a minor group advocated that it was impossible to discourse on sexual taboos in any language, a fact that raised the question of bilinguality/ monoculturality (Hamers& Blanc 1984). To conclude, it is possible to affirm that although the mother tongue created more linguistic insecurity than French, other sociolinguistic parameters had to be taken into consideration to assess the linguistic attitudes.
“Tango: Narrative Art in Lunfardo”
Anita Herzfeld, University of Kansas, Lawrence
The lyrics of tangos have covered emotions that go from sadness, defiance, freedom, self- control humor, love, to redemption. Many of them have been expressed in lunfardo, the slang of Argentina. By analyzing these lyrics, lunfardo’s usage will be traced extensively, relating it to its Italian immigration origins.
“The Phenomena of Negative Polarity in Modern Greek and Romance Languages”
Anna Maria Margariti, University of Patras, Greece
The discussion concerns the so-called Negative Polarity Items phenomena in Modern Greek and Romance languages. The relevant linguistic facts under examination hold as follows: “Double-faced,” homophonous determiners can be attested across many European languages such as Modern Greek and Romance languages. These determiners seem to constitute single lexical items. Nonetheless, they give rise to two different interpretations. For example, personne in French, nessuno in Italian, kanenas in Modern Greek, which can all mean both somebody and nobody, depending on the context. Contextual factors, such as negation and modality play a crucial role in the emergence of these two different readings. This phenomenon, which, interestingly, spreads over many languages in the Mediterranean can be eloquently illustrated in Modern Greek. Modern Greek exemplifies a morphologically uniform category (already discussed by Veloudis 1982) that encapsulates both uses: kanenas, tipota (anything / nothing), pote (ever / never), pouthena (anywhere / nowhere). All these different items and their Romance counterparts are often phonologically differentiated by the feature of emphasis. More over, the prosodic-semantic interplay seems to hold for items that are not related with Negation and Negative Polarity, but, on the contrary, with Affirmative, Positive Polarity contexts. The Modern Greek ‘kathe’ DP is an instance of this phenomenon. More specifically, when the determiner bears phonological emphasis, a proper universal, presuppositional reading emerges. On the contrary, when the determiner is not pronounced emphatically, the DP renders a non-pressupositional, free choice existential-like reading. In this case, the contextual condition of presupposition seems to be responsible for this distinction. The discussion follows the phenomenon cross-linguistically and stresses the similarities between the aforementioned different languages, in an effort to highlight the similarities between them.
“Axiological Analysis of Job Offers in the Contemporary Spanish Press: A Sample from El País”
Previous axiological analyses in the language of business (brand names, financial and investment terms, etc.), advertising, religion and terminology have revealed the complex relations among values and their hierarchical and scalar relations (Cortés de los Ríos 2001; Felices Lago 1996, 1998, 2002, 2006; Felices Lago & Hewitt 2004; Krzeszowski 1997). In this study, our general objective is an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the lexical tools used to appraise the qualities of job candidates in print advertising. A thorough analysis of these implications could eventually help marketeers to orientate lexical selection in a more effective way. Therefore, we analyze the qualities and values explicitly requested in specific job advertisements, the way in which they are introduced (syntactically and semantically) and their relationship with the general classifications of values codified in language and collected by axiologists, linguists and publicists. To this end, we have selected a corpus of job offers published in the best-selling Spanish business newspaper El País Negocios at different periods throughout the year 2006. The analysis gives us a more reliable estimate of qualities in job advertisements as well as an account of the linguistic means used to denote axiological items.
2C. Shakespeare, Mediterranean, and the Baroque
Chair: Robert E. Bjork, Arizona State University, Tempe
“Shakespeare’s Othello, Caravaggio, and the Edge of Darkness”
Susan O. Shapiro, University of Kansas, Lawrence
Contemporary baroque painters, especially Caravaggio and his followers such as Giuseppe Ribera, known as tenebrosi, or shadow-painters, employed a characteristic style of extreme contrasts between light and shadow, a more dramatically accentuated and intense chiaroscuro. Members of this school favor “i chiaroscuri intensi, i fondi scuri, i colori cupi.” Caravaggio’s Saint John the Baptist (c. 1604/5), a painting at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, Missouri, offers profound manipulation of lighting. I submit that, using similar tenebrist lighting effects, Shakespeare in Othello employs darkness to blur boundaries of perception, reconfigure architectural space, and racialize and redefine family life. In Othello, one is never very far from the edge of darkness. In fact, Shakespeare seems to be conducting an experiment involving the relationship between light and darkness. The play calls for special lighting effects—a lume di notte (candlelit scenes)—or in a more marked tenebrist mode to reveal multiple layers of represented reality, manipulate actual and fictive space, and to reveal a dynamic interplay of space, vision, and the senses.
“The Mythic Journey in Othello: Embodied and Disembodied Selves in Shakespeare and Joseph Campbell.”
Richard Raspa, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
This paper will explore how the tri-part structure of Joseph’s Campbell’s heroic journey—separation, initiation, and return—illuminates the double journey of Shakespeare’s hero Othello. The heroic narratives of battle and triumph Othello recounts as a black North African, Muslim in white Christian Europe are sufficiently compelling to woe Desdemona. These war stories reflect the power of Othello as a leader in the volatile siege of Islam against early modern Europe. The Venetian government confirms Othello’s heroic stature when they appoint him commander of a white Christian army against the Muslim Turks in Cyprus. Othello, however, is unconvinced that he is the hero of his own stories, and becomes the disembodied character of his own fiction. Campbell insists the mythic heroic journey is both physical and psychological. The hero must descend into the self and slay the demons within as well as those without that threaten annihilation. The significant victory for Campbell is not the physical one but the interior one the hero achieves over himself and his voracious, deadly sins. The inner journey requires the embodied self. It is the journey that Othello never makes, and the one that’s essential to distinguish between the claims of Iago and those of Desdemona. That mythic journey is the one that for Campbell is required to become human.
“Shakespeare’s Letters: Troilus and Cressida”
David M. Bergeron, University of Kansas, Lawrence
In Troilus and Cressida Shakespeare places us in the middle of the Greek and Trojan War; its valorous deeds many writers have sung. In this setting emerge Troilus and Cressida as lovers, and Achilles and Hector as competing warriors. Two letters interrupt this stalemate; and both come from female characters: Cressida’s letter to Troilus, and Hecuba’s letter to Achilles. These letters highlight the predicaments of the male characters, as they underscore the conflict between word and deed and reinforce the play’s satiric tone. Arising out of their bed of passion in 4.2, Troilus and Cressida learn that the Trojan and Greek leaders have decided to exchange Cressida for Antenor and thereby reunite Cressida with her father in the Greek camp. But this disrupts their relationship. Cressida immediately falls for Diomedes among the merry Greeks, and in 5.2 Troilus watches in disbelief and horror their courtship. He will not see her again; but in 5.3 he receives a letter from her, which he eagerly but then bitterly reads, concluding: “Words, words, mere words, no matter from the heart” (108). The letter for Troilus ratifies the rupture in their love, not to be repaired, underscoring the play’s wary understanding about the possibility of constancy and love. Achilles prefers to spend his time in his tent with Patroclus, his same-sex partner, where they mock the other Greeks, who react with dismay and consternation. A letter from the Trojan Hecuba intervenes and disrupts the stasis that prevails. In 5.1, Thersites delivers the letter in behalf of Hecuba’s daughter Polyxena, presumably betrothed to Achilles. He now refers to her as his “fair love.” But what has happened to his love for Patroclus? These disturbing letters disturb a play in which love purchases little, and heroic action loses it sheen. Such a compromised world offers little hope but much satiric analysis. Letters cannot penetrate or forestall the loss of innocence.
1:15—3:00 Lunch (on your own)
3A. Ancient and Medieval History
Chair: William S. Monroe, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island
“The Guardians of the Ionian Sea: Korkyra, Cephallenia, Zakynthos (5th to 4th B.C.)”
Kalomira Mataranga, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece
Korkyra, Cephallenia and Zakynthos are the largest islands of the Ionian Sea, off the west coast of Greece. These islands differed from the mainland naval states in that they advanced their own interests, they possessed a degree of independence, and comprised a geographical and political entity unto themselves. The importance of their geographical position on the sailing routes along the west coast of Greece and on the route for fleets to Italy and Sicily; their role as military naval bases, as marshalling points for naval expeditions (in the Ionian and Adriatic Sea) and convenient stations for the fleets of rival great powers, as also the relations and strategic realignments of these three Ionian states with Athens and Sparta, fighting for supremacy and sovereignty over Greece (during the 5th and 4th centuries B.C.) are some of the basic issues that are discussed in this paper.
“‘Mare nostrum’ vs. ‘al-bahr al-ausat’? The Roman and Arab Conquest of the Mediterranean Sea and Its Neighboring Countries”
Jens Scheiner, University of Hamburg
This paper compares the historic events that led to the dominance over the Mediterranean Sea by two different cultures, in two different times. On the one hand, it outlines Roman policies and actions that made the Roman Empire or its emperor the master of “our sea” (“mare nostrum”)? Which countries were attacked? How long did it take the Romans to conquer all neighboring countries? Which instruments did they use to hold their power over the Mediterranean? On the other hand the focus lies on the early Muslim conquest movement and the Umayyad caliphate. During the first century of Islam most of the Byzantine provinces around the Mediterranean Sea were captured by Muslim armies and were incorporated into a big, world dominating empire, although none of these armies were skilled sailors. Which countries were conquered by these Muslim armies? Which were not? How come that Bedouins were able to dominate the Mediterranean Sea (al-baÌr al-ausaÔ), although they weren’t sailors? A comparison of these two historic events will enlighten our understanding of Mediterranean rule in pre-modern societies.
“Pope Formosus and Hamburg-Bremen”
William S. Monroe
Among the few surviving letters of Pope Formosus (891-896) are several concerning the status of the bishopric of Bremen, which had been subsumed some thirty years earlier into the Archbishopric of Hamburg. This situation had created an ongoing conflict with the Archbishop of Cologne, to which the diocese of Bremen had earlier been subject. In 893, Pope Formosus attempted a compromise which he hoped might settle the matter, but he met with intransigence from both the Archbishops of Hamburg and of Cologne. A falsified letter of the later Pope Sergius III (904-911) adds an interesting angle to the problem by reversing the decision of Formosus in a way that is entirely consistent with the contemporary conflicts over the papacy of Formosus, suggesting that the falsified letter may at least have some historical foundation. While much has been written about the various sources for the diocese of Hamburg-Bremen, the letters of Formosus have mostly been ignored. I propose to take a closer look at them in the light of both the conflict between the two archbishoprics and the papacy of Formosus.
“The Place of Central and Eastern Europe on the Cultural Map of the Continent: The Cyrillo-Methodian Church in the Middle Ages”
Ryszard Grzesik, Institute for Slavistics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan
The history of Central-Eastern Europe (the new EU-countries) is still unknown to the societies and even intelectuals of the Western part of the continent and the USA. The aim of the paper is to show, that the “younger” (J. Koczowski) or “Third” (J. Szecs) Europe accepted and developed the Latin model of the Christian culture. However, the geographical position of the region caused that it was penetrated, also, by the Byzantine missionaries. States of the eastern part of the region accepted the Eastern Christianity. The region could be understood, therefore, as a border-region, where the influences of both models of the culture could be observed. According to me, the Great-Moravian Christianity created the third model, which was the synthesis of the Latin and Greek: the Cyrillo-Methodian Church. This aspect and the further fates of this Church could not be omitted in the analysis of the cultural panorama of the region. I would like to concentrate on the Middle Ages, according to my research skills, but I will try to show the synthetical picture of development of the Church (and culture) in the states of the region until nowadays, too.
3B. Demographics, Traditions, and Popular Culture
Chair: Gilbert Fernandez, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville
“(Re)Producing the Turk: Demography and Territory in Turkey”
Sezai Ozan Zeybek, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK
In my study, I investigate the demography politics in Turkey, beginning with the partition of the Ottoman Empire after WWI until the 1960s. I mainly examine how the colonial/national politics of the era has provided not only an imaginary of different nations/regions with clearly separated territories but also a set of classificatory tools and modes of knowledge (such as demographic data) for constituting, calculating and mobilizing these differences. Put differently, I take up demography as an administrative technique and study its inherent presumptions, classifications, strategies and representations, which separate Europe from non-Europe, Greek from Turk, Turk from non-Muslim and etc. Analyzing the formation of such dichotomies is significant, because they have long been the primary tools of territorial conflicts. Through them, Asia Minor has been pre-described and constructed anew during and after WWI to create homogeneously imagined nations. Yet, imagining homogeneity is a violent undertaking: millions were forced to leave their homes during this period for the sake of separating populations. By revisiting the historical documents and the related policies of the period, I will question the dividing and re-uniting policies of the national/colonial rule. Specifically, I will look at the deployment of a particular mode of knowledge, i.e. demography as a governmental technology.
“Between Tradition and Modernity: Interdisciplinary Discussion in Mediterranean Cinema”
Meral Özçınar, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Terzioglu, Turkey
Modernity, as a concept, defines the process in which traditional social and political values superseded by canons of modernity. Modernity concept emerges with demand of modern things by communities other than western. Smith who classified modernism phenomenon as modernity, modernized and modernizing communities, claims that modernized and traditional communities get modernized as they internalized modern values which they abstract and universal. According to Smith alteration in this process contains both evolutionary and revolutionary content. Smith emphasizes that elite minority who believes transition from traditional to modernity is a global and total social transformation, represents the revolutionary tradition (France, Turkey, Russia, China). How is the tension between modern and traditional represented in the lives of people who are described as mixed up between this two end. Turkish cinema, missoned to save the balance between tradition and modernity, is an unordinary cinema which produced specific films about process of modernity. Even though subject, story, theme, plot and characters narrative has been changed, discussion about traditionality and modernity never ended. Modernity was clearly seen in the films of 60’s and 70’s, turned into behavior patterns of characters and speak for different parts of the society. Most of time modernity and westernization used as synonym, development of civilization was appreciated but loosing traditions caused wail. For that reason lots of film use street which symbolize traditionality. The only heroine, out of street, kezban going to see the western and after that return back with the solution of Turkey’s traumatic problem of modernization. Kezban goes to Roma. Kezban goes to Paris. The aim of this essay is to compare the modernity experience of Turkey with other Mediterranean countries. This subject will be discussed considering Turkish cinema, especially those mentioned above.
“Defining ‘The Mediterranean’: An Analysis of Etiquette and Behavior”
Hanna Nolze and Steffi Hobuss, Leuphana Universität Lüneburg
The regions and countries located in and bordering on the Mediterranean Sea vary widely in cultural background, history and heritage. However, the expression “the Mediterranean” refers regularly only to parts of that territory. Based on a selection of books and articles, which are widely linked to the subject of etiquette and behavior, we first examine if the literature provides a definition for the term “the Mediterranean” explicitly or implicitly. Second, we examine the scale, on which these definitions (or quasi-definitions) are based. Do they refer basically to a geographical territory, and if yes, do they include entire countries as we see them today or rather selected regions? Does the literature consider “the Mediterranean” to be a rather intangible construct based on common heritage and common cultural practices? If the latter is the case, does it also include regions which are geographically located off the Mediterranean Sea? Included in this step is the question whether we find a common consensus in the selected literature on what “the Mediterranean” is. Based on the literatures’ definition of “the Mediterranean” we evaluate in a third step if we can detect within the defined area similarities with regard to people’s etiquette, behavior and underlying values. Can we find a common ground on which people from the Mediterranean interact? If not, what differences between the people’s etiquette and behavior can we detect; where do they possibly arise from; and how can they influence mutual understanding?
“Treacherous Rockers and Prophets Betrayed”
Laurent Mignon, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
The Israeli novelist Shulamit Lapid’s The Concubine on the Mountain (Pilegesh be-Givah, 2000) is a detective novel that explores the author’s disillusion with rock culture and Israeli society, both of which have arguably betrayed their purity and original principles. The aim of this paper is to study the subversion of various clichés belonging to rock culture that symbolize the betrayal of rock musicians and its corollaries in contemporary Israeli society. The novel demystifies the famous slogan “Sex and drugs and rock’n’roll.” The myth of the groupie is turned upside down and she becomes a predator; drugs are deglamorised and synonymous for obscure relations with the underworld and the rebellious spirit of rock’n’roll is sacrificed on the altar of commercial success. This parody of the rock’n roll universe is developed in parallel with acerb criticism of Israeli society. Lapid focuses on corruption and the hazardous relationships between the Mafia, the business community, politicians, the police and the press. Hence she draws the portrait of a society that has betrayed the “principles of freedom, justice and peace, guided by the visions of the prophets of Israel” and which is far from granting “full equal, social and political rights to all its citizens regardless of differences of religious faith” as was announced in the Declaration of independence of 14 May 1948. In conclusion, one could argue that rock ‘n’ roll’s selling out and Israel’s failure to be a “light among nations” call attention to the role of the novelist and the crime novel as one of the last popular instruments of social criticism.
3C. English Drama and the Mediterranean World
Chair: Susan O. Shapiro, University of Kansas, Lawrence
“‘His Nature is too Noble for the World’: Action and Speech as Roman Identity in Julius Caesar and Coriolanus.”
Brian Harries, University of Kansas, Lawrence
Shakespeare’s Roman plays, particularly Julius Caesar and Coriolanus, tend to pit Roman action and eloquence against one another as opposing forces. Rome itself has a contradictory duality as both a brute, powerful military force and a refined, efficient political machine. Military virtue and political eloquence represent these two halves and often work towards opposite ends. Roman identity in these plays remains paradoxical, since it incorporates both of these attributes. Julius Caesar and Coriolanus play important roles in establishing our understanding of Roman identity in the Shakespearean canon. Julius Caesar focuses on one of the most important turning points in Roman history, when it can legitimately claim its identity as both republican and imperial. The play explores those actions that led into Augustus’ rise to power and the solidification of the empire. While Coriolanus takes place in an unspecified time in the early republic, it occupies an important place in Shakespeare’s career. The last tragedy, it offers a final comment on Rome and potentially Shakespeare’s ultimate idea about Roman identity. In the characters of Brutus and Coriolanus, we see men wrestling with the question of what it means to be Roman. Each man sees a strict binary between action and speech, on which they base their ideas of honorable conduct. This paper argues that both men’s tragic natures lie in the desire to live a Roman ideal without acknowledging the daily compromises that allow the state to flourish
“Revisiting the Custom of the Country, Fletcher, Massinger, and Cervantes”
Mary Dudy Bjork, Arizona State University, West, Phoenix
As he did frequently, Fletcher turned to a Spanish novel when he and Philip Massinger wrote the comedy The Custom of the Country. This paper examines how Cervantes’ Persiles y Sigismunda inspired the playwrights to present their audience with a more complex social vision than we have perceived before. Far from being a groseria (obscenity) or failed attempt at mimicking Cervantes, the play offers an entirely different kind of artistic expression that questions the dominant patriarchy and the role women must play in it.
“Shakespeare and the Cinema: The Tempest as Cinematic Cipher of the Mediterranean”
Phillip Drummond, New York University in London, UK
The paper continues my research on the Mediterranean as cinematic sign of liminality and difference, concentrating here on cinema’s interpretations of the single most potent text dramatizing the transformative powers of Mediterranean island life, Shakespeare’s farewell play The Tempest. This magical tale of a father and daughter’s exile, shipwreck, island exile, encounters with strange and magical beings, and eventual return to society, has furnished a number of cinematic versions, the first known version, by Percy Stow (1908), announcing the challenges and opportunities confronting the new medium by compressing the play into an inventive series of silent tableaux running just 12 minutes. Textual fidelity inspires the traditionalist versions offered, for example, by Nicholas Young (1969), John Gorrie (1980) and William Woodman (1985), whereas Shakespeare’s oneiric Mediterranean fable is more often only the pretext for much broader cinematic projections involving excursions into the deserts of California (in Wellman’s western Yellow Sky, 1948) or even outer space (in Fred Wilcox’s Forbidden Planet, 1956). Paul Mazursky’s The Tempest (1982) cuts between the pressures of modern day New York and the less populous Mediterranean in the interests of a modern American family melodrama (and saves the shipwreck for the conclusion) while Jack Bender’s The Tempest (1998) turns the play into a Civil War plantation drama. Film adaptations of The Tempest thus range in their approach all the way from a commitment to a sense of the Shakespearean original, to a loose sense of modernization and relocation, and can go even further to engage a thorough-going recreation of the play in terms of cinematic wizardry and excess. Derek Jarman’s The Tempest (1979), for example, is committed to the original, but also contrives a characteristic punk/queer hybrid, while, in the most complex vision of the play, Peter Greenaway’s dazzling experimental essay Prospero’s Books (1991) deploys complex compositional and editing techniques to centre on what he takes to be the key motif in the play, the twelve books which Prospero—here played amidst the audiovisual trickery by Shakespearean stalwart John Gielgud—lost in the original shipwreck. The paper will consider a range of issues raised by this variety of adaptations. These will include: the institutional role of Shakespeare canon in world cinema; the place of The Tempest in the marketplace for film adaptations; the mediation of the Shakespeare text through the varied expressivities of film language; the generalizability/specificity of Shakespearean ‘meaning’ in the case of one his most ‘abstract’ plays’; the concretization of the ‘magical’ world of the Shakespearean fable in relation to cinema’s preference for ‘realism’ but also its propensity for audio-visual ‘spectacle.’
Friday, May 30
Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Rotes Feld Campus, Rotenbleicher Weg 67
4A. Mediterranean Perceptions and Relations
Chair: Jelena Bulić, Croatian Institute for History, Zagreb, Croatia
“Women’s Fashions in Transition: Ottoman Borderlands and the Anglo-Ottoman Exchange of Costumes”
Onur Inal, University of Arizona, Tucson
Starting from the last quarter of the sixteenth century the Ottomans established significant and enduring relationships with Great Britain. Especially from the first half of the eighteenth century onward, cultural encounters between the Ottoman and British people increased and this brought about sweeping change to the lives of the peoples living in urban centers, in particular. As a result of these encounters, the significance of the cities on the Eastern Mediterranean increased considerably and these borderlands became places of conspicuous interactions. The unique position of these cities between reportedly distinct worlds granted them the privilege to foster cross-cultural exchanges, which tremendously changed the lives of individuals in both Ottoman and British societies. In my paper, I will argue that the borderland model can help us to think beyond the widely accepted opinions that Europe and the Ottoman Empire were two separate entities and had limited and unilateral cultural interaction in the nineteenth century. I will also try to reconfigure previous assumptions that ignored the socio-cultural impacts of the Ottoman borderlands both on British and Ottoman people. The particular emphasis of my paper will be the stimulus of the Ottoman borderlands and the people living in these regions to the interchange of costumes between Ottoman Turkish and British women. In addition to travelogues or newspaper articles of the period, I will also present pictorial primary sources, i.e., illustrations, paintings, and photographs to demonstrate the continuous cross-cultural exchange of fashions between Ottoman Turkish and British women, as well as the effects of new trends on women in both countries.
“Slavic Vigor and Italian Elegance”: Dalmatia in Nineteenth-Century British Travelogue(s)”
In the 19th century English are the most frequent guests on the both sides of the Adriatic. When coming to the eastern shores they are confronted by the multicultural reality of Dalmatia, especially since 1815 and the Congress of Vienna, when it became an Austrian province. The English traveler at moments sees the Italian as the intelligent, bourgeois citizen who is becoming substituted by the Slavs, their language and culture. The traveler attitude is ambivalent, he is amazed at the complexity of Dalmatia and its Slav inhabitants but at the same time he is preoccupied for the future of Italian minority. The Slav component is viewed through the western European perspective and in its relation to Italian/Venetian. The imperial English discourse and its anxiety for the loss of Dalmatia as a European territory are present in the English travelogue. This paper will focus on the double cultural view and the shift in perspective of the Slav identity and it will try to s how that Venetian cultural representations of Dalmatia are assumed by the English traveler.
“Mediterranean Cosmopolitanism and the Law: The Italians of Alexandria, Egypt in the Nineteenth Century”
Elizabeth H. Shlala, Georgetown University, Washington, DC
Under the modernization schemes of the Egyptian ruler, Mohammed Ali Pasha, Italian immigration was encouraged in the beginning of the nineteenth century. The city of Alexandria, known as the Bride of the Mediterranean, served as both setting and protagonist for the cosmopolitan Italian community. The Italians had an advantageous economic, political, and legal position as Ottoman and European commercial interests coalesced in the vibrant Mediterranean port. Foreigners received privileges extended by their consuls beyond that of their Egyptian counterparts through the sixteenth-century capitulations. Among other foreign groups, the Italians were the second largest in Alexandria. My essay will trace the discourses of cosmopolitanism and nationalism as the century progressed. In particular, contentious lawsuits made by Italians against the Egyptian government will illustrate this discursive shift. I will explain how such cases led to the end of the consular court system, and the rise (and failure) of the Mixed Courts in Egypt. Finally, I will discuss the relationship between the law and cosmopolitanism in the Mediterranean within the Alexandrine context.
4B. Renaissance Culture
Chair: Susan L. Rosenstreich, Dowling College, Oakdale, New York
“Bound with Wond’rous Beauty: Eastern Codices in the Library of Federico da Montefeltro”
Ingrid Alexander-Skipnes, University of Stavanger, Norway
During the rule of Federico da Montefeltro (1444-1482), the court of Urbino had a variety of interesting contacts with the East. These contacts might be the visits of Eastern ambassadors. The ambassador of Persia, for example, made a visit, and his likeness may even have been painted in Joos van Ghent’s Communion of the Apostles (1474), a painting in which Marilyn Lavin finds East-West correlations. She argues that the panel points to a combination of Eastern iconography and Western liturgy. It is likely that it was Federico who requested that the image of the Persian delegate be included in the painting as a memento of close social and cultural ties between the two regions. Cardinal Bessarion (1403-1472) maintained close contacts with several courts and governments. The Byzantine scholar too particular interest in the education of Federico’s children, particularly their Greek studies. Bessarion’s close ties to the court were an opportunity to advance interest in Hellenic culture among the rules of Italy. He had given gifts of Greek texts to two of Federico’s sons with dedicatory remarks and left his manuscripts, to be transcribed, in Urbino when he traveled to France in 1472. We are told by the chronicler, Vespasiano da Bisticci, that Federico da Montefeltro collected, “whatever books which were to be had in Hebrew, beginning with the Bible and all those dealt with by the Rabbi Moses (Maimonides) and other commentators. And besides the Holy Scriptures, there are books in Hebrew ... on medicine, philosophy and the other faculties.” Furthermore, Baldassare Castiglione, in his The Book of the Courtier, writes that Federico “collected many very excellent and rare books in Greek, Latin and Hebrew, all of which he adorned with gold and silver, deeming these to be the supreme excellence of his great palace.” A systematic acquisition of Greek and Hebrew manuscripts began around 1464. Some were received as gifts or through commissions and other s, obtained as spoils of war. From the library of Palla Strozzi, he obtained Ptolemy’s Geography which had held pride of place in Palla Strozzi’s library before it passed to Federico who kept it in a cedar box. This manuscript had been brought from Greece in the fourteenth century and became an important textual source in Italy. This paper examines Federico’s interest in establishing an international court culture that included the culture of the East. Manuscripts such as Ptolemy’s Geography responded to Federico’s own intellectual and aesthetic aspirations which he could pass on to his children.
“Across Religious and Ethnic Boundaries: Networks and Spaces in Early Modern Venice”
Stephen Ortega, Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts
To date, early modern Mediterranean scholarship on social spaces has focused largely on spaces inhabited by a particular linguistic community or religious group. Part of the reason for this approach is that religious and linguistic communities have been seen as both a fundamental source of identity, and also a means states used to identify and to organize people. Yet understanding social relationships solely through this prism fails to acknowledge other Mediterranean connections and other types of social spaces. Focusing on Venice, this talk will demonstrate that in the sixteenth century, while the Venetian government attempted to control foreign groups through the creation of the Ghetto and residences for merchants, other contact zones represented a different form of social organization and a different type of order. Functioning as networked social spaces, these contact zones reflected connections between Muslims, Christians and Jews, and also embodied ties between the local and other places throughout the Mediterranean. Reflecting a broad expanse of commercial, political and personal Mediterranean networks, these connections were defined less by religious or ethnic solidarity than by patronage, by economic ties and by happenstance.
“Machiavelli’s Political Modeling”
Waldemar Hanasz, University of Massachusetts Lowell
Machiavelli declares a groundbreaking novelty of his method of reasoning. However, while most commentators agree that his “new modes and orders” changed the values and goals of political thinking, there is no such agreement concerning his methodological approach. One can distinguish four major schools of interpretation presenting Machiavelli as (1) a scientist, whose empiricism and a “systematic description of facts” can be compared to other methods of early modern natural and social sciences, (2) a political theorist, whose focus on the general rules upgraded the theory of politics, (3) a pragmatist, who needed well organized knowledge to learn, teach, and effectively act; and (4) a rhetorician, who understood that a successful political actor must be able to influence people and emotionally motivate them to act.
This paper focuses on Machiavelli’s procedures of modeling — going through the steps of universalization, simplification, and idealization—that allow him to construct a narrow set of basic assumptions and use the principles of scrupulous reasoning in order to grasp the essence of politics. The idea of modeling seems to unify all four major interpretations of Machiavelli’s method but it also introduces some more specific elements, including the basic model of the political man, that contributed to the Renaissance advancement of social science.
4C. Archeology and Architecture
Chair: Marilyn Stokstad, University of Kansas, Lawrence
“Some Observations on the Thracian Castle in Eastern Thrace”
İsmail Hakkı Kurtuluş, Trakya Üniversity, Edirne, Turkey
Main objective of this report is presenting Iron Age Castle located in Eastern Thrace and specially steep slopes of the Yildiz Mountains. After the fieldwork, which has carried out with the permission of Cultural and Tourism Ministry of Turkey, seen common characteristics of Thracian Castle as location, architectural features, material and workmanship. In addition Thracian life, their religion and neighbors affected them to built fortification buildings. Also strong local material play important role for architectural features of castle. So, Thracian Castles are important for the history of Thrace like other well-known remains; dolmens, tumulus and rock monuments. Thracian Castle located in Bulgaria, Greece and Romania generally. On one hand, Eastern Thrace samples are parallel with built in Bulgaria. Castles grow up in ages by found new architectural techniques and increasing necessities of Thracians. They live in tribes and never achieved to establish wider state, so they always though that the small castles were enough for provide whole tribes needs. These buildings have typical as the symbol of different world and completely differ from Roman-Late Antique castle located in the same topography. They built on the peak point of mountains or very dark place of forest. We believe that they need more concern as very unique cultural heritage.
“The Architecture of Houses in a Transitional Region in the Case of Datça Peninsula”
Emre Ergul, Izmir University of Economics, Turkey
Datça peninsula, one of the settlements on the coastline of Anatolia, is surrounded by Gökova Bay at North and Hisarönü Bay at South. The location of peninsula may have given to it a chance to get the benefit of being a part of the cultural interactions in Mediterranean routes of trading. Daily life in settlements of peninsula had been deeply affected by these relations. It is known that in the middle age, Venetians and Menteshe State were closely in trading. Every sub-region on the coastline of Anatolia like Datça peninsula, because of being in relation with both the sea and inner lands, can be defined as a transitional region. That may be the main reason why the houses on the coastline are differentiated from the houses in the inner parts of Anatolia. Although the architecture of houses of inner lands can be considered in a whole, houses on the coastline never presents a unity by means of space traditions and construction technology. The houses in Datça have only one room in rectangular plan shape and with two windows nearby, fireplace is a dominant element of the room. This study will specifically focus on the characteristics of houses in the context of being in a transitional region.
“French Colonial Architectural Representation: Algiers Speaks Architecture (1830-1930)”
Kahina Amal Djiar, Polytechnic School of Architecture and Urbanism, Algiers, Algeria
The establishment of French rule in Algeria was strategically planned to go hand in hand with the development of the ruse of the ‘civilizing mission,’ which consisted of claiming that France had the noble duty of educating the ‘barbarians’ of North Africa. This paper aims to highlight the relationship between French ideologies of empire and the colonialist attitude towards the Ottoman medina of Algiers—also known as the Algiers Casbah. It discusses the way that the instrumentalisation of the built environment for colonialist purposes affected the production of space in Algiers. Being aware from the outset that architecture—and urbanism—constituted the most physical and expressive form of culture, French colonialists ascribed to the Built environment the communicative power of verbal language in order to provoke a hierarchical, comparative interpretation that was based on binary oppositions between French cultural ‘superiority’ and indigenous cultural ‘backwardness.’ Architectural semiotics was used to symbolize a clear distinction between the ‘piteous’ and ‘anarchic’ Ottoman medina of the ‘barbarian’ race set against the ‘prestigious’ and ‘orderly’ new city of the ‘civilized’ French nation. This paper argues that the relationship between architectural language and politics in French Algeria was so intimate that any shift of colonial discourse throughout the period of French rule also engendered a shift in architectural production
5A. Greek Literature, Philosophy, and Medicine
Chair: Vaios Vaiopoulos, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece
“Africa as the New Ithaca: In N. Kazantzakis’ Odyssey” CANCELED
Christos C. Evangeliou
Greece, in its short life as a modern European free nation since 1830, has produced several good writers and poets. Tow of the greatest Greek poets, G. Seferis and O. Elytis, received the Nobel Prize for Literature in the second half of the 20th century, which is rather unusual. Nikos Kazantzakis, distinguished himself both as an accomplished poet and as prose writer. He was the first Greek to be nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1956, against the will of the Orthodox Church and the Greek Government, which incredibly did not support his candidacy. So he failed, but he is now one of the best-known writers in Greece, in Europe, in US and globally. He has been rightly recognized as a novelist of deep philosophical thought, of hilarious humor and powerful dramatic emotion. Some of his novels, “Zorba the Greek,” “The Greek Passion,” and “Last Temptation of Christ” have also become successful films and musicals. Literary fame came to Nikos late in life or after his death, but it came at last as a big-big wave, a literary tsunami, whose power grew greater with the passing of time. Kazantzakis, however, wanted above all to be and become known, in Greece and abroad, as the new poet of Greece, another Homer, whom he endeavored to imitate and rival by writing the long poem of Odyssey (33.333), patterned as a sequel to the old epic. The Homeric hero, as is known, tried to get home adventurously for ten long years in the sea, traveling from troubled Troy to sunny Ithaca, where faithful Penelope was waiting for her husband’s return. The New Odysseus, the more restless, reckless and romantic Kazantzakian hero, leaves Ithaca and Penelope behind forever and for other new and more daring adventures. These leaps into the unknown will test the limits of his craftiness bringing Odysseus successively further from his native land, the lovely island of Ithaca and the Mediterranean light, into the desert and jungle of Africa, and ultimately the jaws and darkness of Death. Thus, from little rocky Ithaca Odysseus and his new crew will find themselves in spacious Sparta, where Helen will be waiting to be abducted again. From Menelaus’ Sparta they will sail to Minoan Crete, which was ready to be taken by invading barbarians from the North. From Crete, having exchanged Helen for Dictaina, Minos’ elder daughter and famous prostitute, they will reach Egypt, which was at that moment in revolutionary turmoil. Their support for the revolutionaries could not save the “social revolution” in Egyptian Thebes. Unwillingly, Odysseus would find himself, like Moses, at the head of a new exodos from Egypt. Moving south through the desert they will desperately search for the source of the Nile, in the heart of black Africa. This, then, becomes their unintended “New Ithaca!” But the final Ithaca, identified with dark Death, Odysseus will meet far away from Ithaca and the Nile, at the tip of an iceberg drifting towards the South Pole, in Antarctica. His death coincides with the end of life on Earth. Kazantzakis produced this great poem, during the period of the two World Wars, at the apex of European Colonialism in Africa. He worked on various versions of it for fifteen years at the prime of his age and artistic creativity (1923-1938). In the Odyssey he apparently describes imaginary events as taking place in familiar pre-historical times and places in Greece and Crete, or in imagined places in Africa, to which Modern European man was yearning to return atavistically, like Odysseus to his roots in sunny Ithaca. The poet thus succeeded in creating a new and compelling portrait of the perennial wanderer, Odysseus or “Ulysses Theme,” as is known in the West. It is the “most integrated portrait of Odysseus” since Homer, in the judgment of W. B. Stanford, in the lustrous company of many poetic and literary portraits of him. It would seem that this new Odysseus is closer to Homeric hero in terms of diversity of invention, completeness of character, fantastic wandering and wandering, and integration of exploratory experience. In this sense, then, it would be fair to say that it stands above the portraits of Odysseus, which we find in a series of other great Greek poets from Sophocles and Euripides to Cavafy and Seferis. It would be of interest to us to explore briefly, in the background of the Homeric setting, the Kazantzakian portrait of Odysseus and the “poetic geography” of his aimless wanderings. These, like post-modern life itself, are full of phenomenological surprises, existential anguish and suffering, and Nietzschean sardonic laughter, above all. In view of the socialist and communist political experiments in the 20th century around the world, special attention would be given to the building of the “Ideal Republic” in the heart of Africa, its tragic fate, and its poetic symbolism in Odysseus’ journey towards his final destination and rest. This turned out to be the cold embrace of the bottomless Abyss or Death, the true Ithaca for any mortal man or man-made god in this poetic cosmogony. The same fate waits even the Sun, our only Sun and Odysseus’ natural companion, the only source of light, which has set the scene for the performance of the tragicomic play of Life and Death on the surface and in the face of Mother Earth. At an appointed time, this little play, the phantasmagoria of self-awareness, will come to an end and Silence shall reign. We are to still our heart and look into this Abyss with the “Cretan Glance,” that is, without fear and, more importantly without hope. This is the new meaning of old Ithaca.
“The Platonic Tradition in Philosophy and Poetry of Russian Symbolism”
Lilia Castle, Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii
The paper will discuss the Platonic roots of Russian philosophical tradition, in particular, such significant phenomena in Greek and Russian culture as the unity of poet and thinker in one person. I will examine the significance of poetry and myth for Plato’s philosophy, and the presence of his influence in the creativity of Russian philosophers-poets of the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century (school of symbolism). Though the unity of the rational and imperceptible seems to be better expressed in literature and the arts rather than in philosophical arguments, a tendency of philosophy to take on literary forms is not accidental. Vladimir Soloviev and Viacheslav Ivanov are philosophers but they are also poets-symbolist. Plato writes using dialogues in what we might call a dramatic style where philosophy and poetry melt into each other. Also, Plotinus in Porphyry expresses himself with many a literary flourish. The Platonic tradition will be observed in the analysis of the common features of philosophy and poetry of symbolism reflected in analogical perception and expression of reality:
· The intuitive feminine receives the divine world and immerses herself therein, and this acceptive listening for the Real, brought about by mystical intuition, blends with the carefulness and high precision of masculine idealism.
· The dialectic between reason and contemplation produces the specific forms of philosophical poetry and poetic philosophy for the revelations of mystical perceptions.
· The inspiration for philosophy could not be found only in pure rationalism; this is why intuitive poetic penetration of reality is of a great importance for philosophy.
· Poetry is not an addition but the real mystical basis for philosophy.
· Both philosophy and poetry are sacred in their source: it is the contemplation of the divinity in Its creation. The very inspiration of a poet as well as a philosopher is the sign of god.
· Both philosophy and poetry reflect Aphrodite Urania, the ultimate truth in beauty.
· The search for synthetic wholeness on all sides of being and in the human spirit itself is the idea for philosophy and poetry.
· The central meaning of myth originated in Plato’s philosophy, constitutes an inseparable element of philosophy and poetry of symbolism, which immerses itself in mythological steams.
Russian symbolism, as well as Plato’s philosophy, always retains the cloud of the imperceptible, the suggestion of the inexpressible behind its constructions. There is a confirmation of the totality of the presence of soul in every part of the universe, and there is no privation of soul in matter.
“Disease and Transmissibility in the Ancient World: the Triumph of the Common Sense”
Vaios Vaiopoulos, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece
Disease and Transmissibility in the Ancient World: the Triumph of the Common Sense Abstract Hippocratic corpus writers were well aware of the clinical symptoms of wound and trauma infections. Furthermore, they did not avoid discussing diseases that are nowadays considered to be infectious. Yet, the notion of disease transmission from the unhealthy to the healthy was beyond their perception. According to these medical writers, the cause of pestilence is a common factor that influences all the inflicted simultaneously: air. Galen agrees with the above theory, but he decides that air cannot be the sole cause of disease. In this way he reinforces the standard view that refutes the possibility of transmission. Thucydides is the first to mention the transmission of a disease from one person to another or from one country to another. In a way, his narration depicts the popular views on the matter. Diodorus also underlines the contagious character of the 396 B.C. pestilence. Titus Livius, who believed in the notion of contagion, provides us with an interesting testimony of the 212 B.C. plague. In Latin non-medical literature it is not difficult to find references to the idea of contagion. Especially in veterinary works the idea of contagion, as a way of disease transmission is quite apparent. Aretaios must be the first doctor to ever adopt a positive stance on contagion. From all the above observations it results that historians, philosophers and zoologists do not refute the possibility of disease transmission through contagion, whereas doctors resist the idea, as it jeopardized the rationalistic theories that are based on a strict interpretation of causality in the narrow framework of atomic nosography.
“Refuting Polytheism: Shared Premises between the Daimon and the Demon”
Isha Gamlath, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
The formation of a distinct borderline between Christian monothiesm and pagan polytheism in the Antonine era of the Roman east in late antiquity throws considerable light on two principle mediums through which prophecy was dispensed within the conceptual framework o divination—the daimon and the demon.The testimony of Augustine’s De Civitate Dei and Eusebius’ Preparatio Evangelica, despite their reflection of the controversial Christian derision of pagan worship and the critique levelled against pagan gods conceptualized in the form of demons, provides sufficient scope for the exploration of the degrees of the survival of the polytheistic implications in the religio–social elements linking to the identity of demons corresponding to the agency of daimons with reference to the character and principles encompassing their shared premises. This paper seeks to establish the cohesive nature of this correspondence and its influential character in reducing the pre-established polemical structures between monotheism and pagan polytheism.
5B. Art and Music
Chair: M. Rebecca Leuchak, Roger Williams University, Bristol, Rhode Island
“Turkish Figures in the European Ceramics”
Gulgun Yilmaz, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
After Istanbul had been conquered, the Ottoman Empire started to follow developments in Europe. In the 16th Century, conquests and sieges were directed to the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe. The relations between the Ottoman Empire and Europe were strengthened through battles, agreements, exchange of representatives, population transfers, trade. In the 19th Century, Ottomans were westernized while at the same time the West became curious about the East. These changes were called in the East as “Westernization” and in the West as “Orientalism.” The West was always interested in eastern carpets, divans, ivory gallows, decorative waterpipes and decorated their houses with these objects. In these years, the designs of Theodore Deck and Emile Samson in France, William de Morgan in England, Ulisse and Giusippe Cantagalli in Italy, Miklos Zsolnay in Hungary are inspired by famous Iznik ceramics. The Porcelain factories in Europe such as Minton (England), Meissen (Germany), Sevres (France) and many others were produced in the 19th century Turkish male and female porcelain figures, which were based on gravures from 17th century.
“Relationships between Etruscan and Anatolian Mural Painting in Archaic Period”
Fuat Yilmaz, Ege Üniversitesi Edebiyat, Izmir, Turkey
Etruscan tombs’ mural painting has a concessive position among whole antic world paintings due to their artistic quality and numerous well protected samples. Tombs with painting are in cities of Chiusi, Orvieto, Cerveteri, Vulci, Veii and Tarquinia. Best known tombs are Tarquinia tombs of “Ripe Archaic Period”: Tomba dei Tori, Tomba degli Auguri, Tomba delle Leonesse, Tomba della Caccia e Pesca, Tomba delle Olimpiadi, Tomba dei Giocolieri, Tomba Cardarelli and Tomba del Barone. In 6th and 5th centuries B.C. scenes of sports, dances, ceremonies and banquets are mostly observed scenes. Tomba dei Tori, the tomb with the earliest painting, is also the only archaic tomb where the Greek Mythology is subjected. Costumes of the figures are in local tradition. Despite the Greek impact on their style, represent the Etruscan spirit at the same time. Tombs with mural paintings found in West Anatolia are Harta, Aktepe, Kızılbel, Karaburun II and Tatarlı. Subjects of the mural paintings are scenes of sports, ceremonies and banquet scenes similar to the Etruscan paintings. Especially in Kızılbel of Lycian region, besides other subjects, also the “Murder of Troilos by Achilleus” takes place similar to the Tomba dei Tori. Similarity is both in the subject and the form. The relationship of Etruscans with Anatolia is based on commerce. The Ionian effect has reached to Etruria specially by the Greek city of Sybaris and its colony of Paestum (Poseidonia),in the southern part of the region, which has intense relationship with Ionia and has links to Samos.
“Villani-Côrtes’ Pianistic Idiom in His Art Songs: The Influence of Brazilian Popular, Jazz, Folk, and Urban Musical Elements”
Rubia Santos, University of Wyoming, Laramie
In the last twenty years, the Brazilian composer Edmundo Villani-Côrtes (b. 1930) has been recognized as one of the most influential composers in Brazilian art music. Although, this recognition came later in his lifetime, he once stated that it came during a period when he was finally able to dedicate himself to composing full time. Villani has worked most of his life as a jazz pianist, arranger, and professor of composition.
Villani s output contains approximately two hundred compositions, most of which written for brass and large ensembles, such as his choral and orchestral pieces. In addition, he is renowned for his arrangements of popular Brazilian music for television and recording labels, as well as a composer of film music. However, it is in Villani s piano works and art songs that the composer s creative talent encounters its most significant expression. This expression is evident in the various musical features utilized by him, resulting in a unique combination of classical tradition and improvisatory manner. Villani wrote fifty-two art songs. The pianistic idiom in his art songs greatly conveys the various Brazilian musical styles that influenced the composer throughout his life. They include jazz, popular, folk, and urban music. In these pieces, the piano part includes the use of tone painting supported by melodic, rhythmic, harmonic, and formal elements. The combination of these elements strongly portrays the musical ambience and textual meaning in supporting the singing of the vocal line. Some of these elements are the samba rhythm, bossa nova and choro styles, modinha form, and jazz harmonic vocabulary. In my presentation today, I will discuss and demonstrate Villani s unique pianistic idiom found in his art songs.
5C. Medieval and Early-Modern Spain
Chair: Paul S. Vickery, Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma
“Al-Andalus: The Meeting Place of Three Cultures” CANCELED
Ingrid Classen-Bauer, Leuphana University Lüneburg
Nearly 800 years—great part of the period between Antiquity and the Renaissance—the three cultures based on Abraham’s monotheistic religion met in the Iberian Peninsula and developed a great period of social and cultural coexistence. It was not only a “golden age of peace”—there were certainly also heavy outbreaks of violence during this time and the Muslim expansion was not achieved peacefully either. But even in periods of violence the spirit of coexistence was present: Christian rulers asked Muslim rulers to fight together against other Christian kingdoms and vice-versa. In Islamic Spain Christian and Jewish communities could flourish just as Jews and Muslims could in the Christian kingdoms of Aragón and Castile. There was a situation of interethnic mixing through marriage which also led to wide spread bilingualism and the sharing of customs and festivities. This merging of cultures influenced all aspects of life, including art, philosophy, literature or architecture. Agriculture as well as science and technology advanced to a high level of civilization and contributed also to the development of the Renaissance in Europe.
The interest in this important period in history, in which the idea of tolerance was highly valued, is so vivid because in present times we have again a situation in which the three cultures live together but do succeed only in certain circumstances and small projects to coexist peacefully: the situation of Palestine and Jerusalem. In this paper we will deal with the historical background of the period, describe the three cultures: Judaism, Christianity and Islam and draw the pattern of coexistence. We will also see how the link of Orient and Occident influenced Europe and reflect whether these patterns of coexistence could also have relevance to modern times.
“Gomes Eanes de Zurara, Garcia de Resende and Their Impact upon Bartolome de las Casas’ View on African Slavery”
Paul S. Vickery
In 1531, 1542, and 1543, Bartolome de las Casas, the Defender of the Indians and Dominican priest recommended to the Crown that Negro slaves, Moors, or other types of slaves be sent to the New World to try to stop the decimation of the indigenous peoples who were dying at an alarming rate. After arriving back in Spain and doing some research into the writings of Eanes de Zurara and Resende, however, the Dominican changed his mind. Despite criticism that Las Casas came late to the problem of African slavery, he was actually one of the first in the sixteenth century to speak out against the entire system of slavery not just the abuse of some. He then became an active and ardent opponent of slavery and the slave trade. This paper will examine the writing of these two Portuguese chroniclers and their influence upon Las Casas and the Portuguese slave trade in the context of the moral, theological, and economic milieu of the time.
“Elizabethan Ottoman Policy: Containing Philip of Spain”
Thomas P. Martin, Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania
Elizabeth I of England arranged commercial treaties with the Porte which would eventually lead to not only the founding of the Levant Company in 1581 but it also opened up travel for many Englishmen. However, merchants and adventurers many of whom were connected to the Levant Company, often conducted independent diplomatic missions which confused and frustrated English policy makers as well as those with whom they intrigued. The most notorious example of such was Anthony Shirley who acted on behalf of the Persians, intent of facilitating trade between England and Persia, but also deliberately tried to muddle England s relation with the Turks for the sake of Persia, who was growing ever more belligerent towards Turkey. Often these adventurers were directly and expressly contraindicated by the English embassy in the Porte.
There were serious consequences for such confusion. After the Turkish defeat at Lepanto, many, such as Lord Cecil in England became alarmed at Spanish power and courted Turkish allies as a means of containing Spain in the Mediterranean. However, as the Levant Company continued to seek trade concessions from Persia, they continually undermined deeper diplomatic ties with the Porte.
“The Recent Discovery of the Diary of Lodewijck Huygens on a Diplomatic Trip from Holland to Spain in 1660-1661”
Robert G. Collmer, Baylor University, Waco, Texas
The year 1660 ushered in a period of quiet in Europe with the Peace of the Pyrenees between France and Spain, the restoration of Charles II to the English throne, the Peace of Copenhagen embracing the Scandinavian countries, and the hoped-for marriage of the Infanta Maria Teresa to Louis XIV. The Staats-General of Holland sent an assemblage led by Johan van Merode to Philip IV at Madrid. Not surprisingly because the family of Merode had known the Dutch ambassador to England, Constantijn Huygens, during the reign of James I, a twenty-nine-year old son of Constantijn, Lodewijck,Huygens, went along in a minor position. The Huygens family was distinguished for public service and for intellectual pursuits. The father had been knighted by James I. He was known as a poet and provided the first translation of nineteen of John Donne’s poems into Dutch while Donne was Dean of St. Paul’s. His son Christiaan is recorded in the history of science as the discoverer of the movement of the pendulum and was a noted mathematician. Lodewijck never achieved the prominence of his father and his elder two brothers In fact, his first foreign experience came in 1651-1652 when because of his academic difficulties at Breda and failure to find a proper vocation, by his father’s influence he was chosen as one of twenty young men to accompany the distinguished representatives to the new English government. His father demanded that he keep a diary. This record in Dutch and French was translated and edited by A. G. H. Bachrach and Robert G. Collmer and published in 1982 by E. J. Brill and the University of Leiden Press. The title is Lodewijck Huygens: The English Journal 1651-1652. A rumored undiscovered manuscript by Lodewijck for another journal circulated in Dutch literary and history circles. Maurits Ebben through research in Madrid and at the Royal Library in The Hague has produced an edition of the original (which is in French, the language of diplomacy in the seventeenth century) with a translation into Dutch. The title of his book is Lodewijck Huygens’ Spaans Journaal (published at Zutphen in 2005 by Walburg Press). It starts with leaving The Hague on November 18, 1660, and stops in Madrid on March 17, 1661. Full of details about the highest levels of Spanish life, it focuses on political connections across Europe. Lodewijck offers few original interpretations of events or objections to the drawing together of Spain with its once-bitter rebels in North Holland.
5D. 20th Century History
Chair: Jo Ann McNamara, Hunter College, New York
“The German Revolution of 1918: Sailors’ Revolt or Admirals’ Mutiny?”
Edmund Clingan, City University of New York
There have been hundreds if not thousands of books written on the origins of the First World War. By contrast, the end of that War is an orphan. It gets consigned as an afterthought to histories of the war, or it is the prelude to the 1919 peace conference of Paris. For Weimar Germany, however, the end of the war was a hotly-disputed matter for the fifteen years between the Armistice and Hitler’s seizure of power. The German public was bewildered by the sudden end of the war and enraged by what it regarded as an unfair peace treaty. For the public, it seemed that the German forces were undefeated and still in occupation of enemy land. The Kaiser and the government had trumpeted victories and told them repeatedly that Germany was winning the war and that the enemy would soon crumble. Russia’s defeat confirmed this optimism. Only those soldiers actually on the Western Front in October 1918 and a few experts in war and military history understood how dire the German position was. The radical right was able to play on this public bemusement after the war. It spun an absurd narrative that Germany was just about to win the War when suddenly it was “stabbed in the back.” The thrust was delivered by a collection of Jews, communists, socialists, and liberals. This conspiracy supposedly incited the seamen and stokers of the High Seas Fleet; their mutiny at the end of October 1918 led to a general leftist uprising throughout Germany that drove out the Kaiser, proclaimed a republic on November 9, and then capitulated to the Allies on November 11. This stab in the back myth contributed immeasurably to the rise of the Nazis. An examination of the documents leading up to the revolt tells another story. It was the admirals commanding the High Seas Fleet who broke the law and violated regulations. Without the approval of the Kaiser or the civilian government, they planned a suicidal final strike that would have sent 80,000 men to their deaths. A war that began with the lies of the Kaiser’s government ended with ordinary men taking their fates into their hands and refusing to obey illegal orders.
“The United States and a Mediterranean Fratricide Conflict: The Italian-Greek War, 1940-1941”
Gianluca Borzoni, University of Cagliari, Italy
On the 28th of October, 1940, Italy launched an attack against Greece: it was the beginning of a dramatic struggle which left a long wake of enmity between the two cradles of classic culture in the Mediterranean. No studies have concentrated on the American side of the war; the present paper thus aims to fill this gap, showing how FDR’s Administration tried to give aid and political support to Metaxas regime, while keeping the U.S. away from the shifting sands of the European War. It was a hard task, since the America Firsters, on one side, claimed to absolutely exclude every form of involvement in the matter, while Greek-Americans, on the other, strongly requested a more active participation from the Presidency. But most of all, it was a fratricide struggle in the Mediterranean that set two dictators against each other. Mussolini against Metaxas: this contribution will also show how cynical the fascist Duce was in preparing his assault, and how surprised was the Greek when he had to face the Italian ultimatum. But Greek soldiers reacted and quickly repulsed the attack. In Washington, Roosevelt started receiving pleas and requests of aid from Athens, and a hard diplomatic struggle also began.
“Fascism and Civil War in Southern Europe: 1943-1945 Italy in Comparative Perspective”
Philip Minehan, International Institute, University of California, Los Angeles
The severity, character and implications of the civil war that occurred in Italy of 1943-1945 remain very much in question, particularly vis-à-vis the literature on fascism as well as within the broader comparative context of the unmistakable civil wars in neighboring Spain, Yugoslavia and Greece. Within those contexts, this paper will attempt to clarify two things: first, the degree and kind of civil war that occurred in Italy during those critical years; second, whether fascism and civil war both occurred in Italy, or if, in their full forms, they tended to be mutually exclusive political phenomena. I argue that full-on fascism was indicative of the structural, political and ideological conditions that precluded the chances for the massive societal dislocations and political-military factionalization characteristic of full-scale civil war. Accordingly, the extent to which there was a civil war in Italy, even once fascism collapsed in 1943, was an indication of the weakness of the social, political and ideological basis for full-on fascism. Though it did not come close to the magnitudes of the civil wars in Spain, Yugoslavia and Greece, there was a significant degree of civil war in Italy during the 1940s. This implies that the grounds for Italian fascism were significantly less than solid, though still far stronger than they were in the countries truly ravaged by civil war.
“The Commemoration of the Spanish Civil War in Contemporary Spain”
Lorraine Ryan, University of Limerick, Ireland
Memorials perfectly symbolize the interaction of collective memory and political power, as they attempt to instill in the national psyche certain subjective positions and social boundaries. Collective memory, in this sense, functions as a structural power, which focuses the attention of the public on supposedly more relevant issues to the detriment of other equally pressing, but not politically expedient, ones. During the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco, victimhood was an exclusively Nationalist preserve, with the enormous Valle de los Caídos, (Valley of the Fallen) outside Madrid commemorating the Nationalist dead of the Spanish Civil War. Thus, the Republican memory of the Civil War, which was equally as traumatic as the Nationalists, was confined to the domestic sphere. For many Republicans, the 1975 transition symbolized the first real possibility for an assessment and eventual supercession of the past. However, their hopes were soon disillusioned by not only the lack of substantial governmental support, but the active obstruction by the government of same. In response to this governmental inertia, families of the Republican dead erected private memorials, such as those in Alfaro y Calahorra and Zaragoza. However, their private initiatives were not accompanied by a long-overdue recognition of the victims of Francoism, with Don Juan Carlos de Bórbon inaugurating only one monument to all the fallen in 1985. Thus, in contemporary Spain, a dichotomy exists between private Republican memorials and official Nationalist ones. Taking this polarization as its point of departure, this paper seeks to examine how this dualism reflects not only Spain s failure to incorporate Republican memory into its collective memory, but also the political impetus to conserve a pro-Francoist conceptualization of national identity.
1:15—3:00 Lunch (on your own)
Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Scharnhorstrasse Campus, Building 16, Room 310
6. Music and Dance: A Performance Session
Chair: Ligia Ravenna Pinheiro, Wittenberg University, Ohio
“Poulenc’s ‘Tel Jour, Telle Nuit’: A Pianist’s Perspective”
Juan La Manna, State University of New York Oswego
The paper will focus on Poulenc’s importance as a composer of vocal music, and will analyze his piano accompaniment of the cycle. A performance will follow.
“Poulenc’s ‘Tel Jour, Telle Nuit’: A Singer’s Perspective”
Todd Graber, State University of New York Oswego
This paper will focus on Poulenc’s song cycle Tel jour, telle nuit, based on a text supplied by the surrealistic poet, Paul Eluard. Composed in 1937, the nine short songs form a cohesive large scale vocal work — some amorous, some nightmarish — each song dependant upon the contrast of the songs which precede or follow it. These poems are expertly woven into a tapestry of sound that was at once recognized as a masterpiece, possibly even Poulenc s finest song cycle. Attention will also be paid to Poulenc’s writing for the voice and his long-term relationship with baritone, Pierre Bernac. A performance of this work will follow with Todd Graber, tenor and Juan Francisco La Manna, piano.
“Barefoot in Berlin; Isadora Duncan’s Early Career in Europe”
Ligia Ravenna Pinheiro
Isadora Duncan made her artistic career and fame in Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century. At the start of her career she lived in Berlin, where she performed and founded a school to teach her art to children. In Germany, where she was well-received by the public, Isadora was able to shape her artistic ideals of a new dance.
This presentation focuses on Isadora Duncan’s dancing style and principles of the early years of her performing career. Using photographs and written accounts of her dancing as a point of departure for movement research, I created dances to evoke Duncan’s aesthetic values. Through kinesthetic-phenomenological methodology I was able to understand Isadora’s art from the inside out, one of the core ideas embedded in her new dance. In a paper-presentation format, this paper will conclude with a performance of dances in the style of Isadora Duncan.
Saturday, May 31
Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Rotes Feld Campus, Rotenbleicher Weg 67
7A. Ottoman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture
Chair: Bulent Ozdemir, Balikesir University, Turkey
“Being a Gypsy in the Ottoman Empire”
Emine Dingeç, Dumlupinar University, Kütahya, Turkey
Being a gypsy in any period and any country means struggles in life. There was always an identity problem distinguishing gypsies from the rest of the society. This identity was the only determinant factor for the attitudes of the state they lived towards gypsies. Free soul of the gypsies was the main problem for the authority of the state. Most of the time, the policy of ethnic cleansing and deportation of the gypsies were the common solutions for the state authorities. Ottoman state also had hard times in putting the gypsies under state authority. However, Ottomans adopted a new but effective policy for the gypsy population of the Empire. Since most of the gypsy subjects of the empire were living in the Balkan region, Ottoman state put them under a special rule and officially employed them in the army. Although their relations with the state were organized according to this new status, gypsies had some problems in their interactions with the rest of the Otoman society. Since the subject requires broader research, the purpose of this paper is to make a general outline of the gypsy life in the Ottoman Empire.
“The Economic History of Pax Ottomana”
Yaşar Bülbül, Kocaeli University, Turkey
In 1453, the full control of the straits (the Dardanelles, Marmara Sea and the Bosphorus) gave the Ottomans a strategic position in establishing dominance over the trade of the Black Sea and of East European countries. In the early sixteenth century, Ottoman Empire annexed Syria, Egypt, Arabia and Yemen to their Empire (1516-1517). Thus, by taking the trade and pilgrimage routes through the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea under their control, Ottomans became the new player in the Mediterranean trade as far as to Gibraltar. In the east, they extended their rule as far as Tabriz, Georgia and the Caspian Sea in an effort to establish their full control of the silk route. On the other hand, by annexing Iraq and gaining access to the Gulf, they participated in the flourishing trade of the Indian Ocean. Free trade within a territory was required for maintaining provisionism -vital for the survival of a state. Two policies greatly helped the Ottomans to achieve this in spite of the shift of the world trade to Atlantic: first, they granted trade privileges, namely capitulations, to Genoa, Venice, Florence, France, England and to Netherlands; second, after the expulsion they transferred and protected a great number of Jews, mostly tradesman, from Spain in 1492. Ottoman Empire also actively protected its own subjects in international trade. With the help of this system, protecting all the tradesmen whether citizen or not, the Ottomans managed to become the superpower of the region throughout the 16th century. By the new world order called as the Pax Ottomana between 1500 and 1700, the Ottomans built up an economic peace around the Mediterranean. The purpose of this paper is to study the global economic history of this period.
“War and Civilian Casualties in Islam and the Ottoman Practices”
I would like to divide this study into two parts: In the first part, the issue of conquest and its religious, ideological and theoretical references will be dealt with in reference to basic Islamic sources and the previous Islamic state’s practices. In particular, what are the limits of warfare and the position of civilians in the wars and wartimes according to the Islamic law will be looked for. In the second part, as a typical Islamic state, to what extend Ottoman conquests in the Balkans followed and practiced the legal way that opened up by Islamic law will be analyzed according to the available chronicles. This study is going to focus on the relations, confrontations and sort of co-operations between the Ottoman armed forces and the civilian people during the Ottoman military campaigns in the Balkans rather than to analyze the military successes in terms of their political and diplomatic importance and outcomes. However, special emphasis will be given to the subject of intended or unintended civilian casualties and losses rather than the broader noncombatant experience.
7B. Medieval and Renaissance History
Chair: James D. Ryan, CUNY-Bronx, New York
“Byzantine Sardinia: Periphery of the Empire or a Military Stronghold (7th-9th c.)?”
Luciano Gallinari, Istituto di storia dell’Europa mediterranea del CNR—Cagliari, Italy
The paper will be devoted to a methodological reflection on the history of Byzantine Sardinia between the VIIth and the IXth centuries and it will attempt to offer a new interpretation of the role that the island had inside of the Byzantine Empire and the western Mediterranean in a crucial historical period of transition between the Late Antiquity and the High Middle Ages. The interpretation given by this paper will be based on ecclesiastical, archaeological and narrative sources both Western and Arabic in an attempt to offer a new perspective of reading of the Sardinia history in this historical period
“The Establishment of the Poor Clares in 13th-Century Rome: The Cases of S. Cosimato (1234) and S. Silvestro in Capite (1285)” CANCELED
Christian-Frederik Felskau, Freie Universität, Berlin
Although consisting of particular features due to its vicinity to the Papal Seat, the Arrival of Female Franciscanism in 13th century Rome has not yet required sufficient attention in the research of both: the Order and the Town. However, the establishment of the Poor Clares’ monasteries in the caput Christianitatis differs notably from how new settlements of this ordo were built in other Italian towns or more distant places of Latin Christendom—not only in quantity, but also in quality. Instead of erecting new monasteries, both religious houses already existed before and were only handed over to the ordo S. Damiani, the first by direct order of Gregory IX. (S. Cosimato), the latter by request of the powerful local aristocratic family of the Colonna (S. Silvestro). Whereas S. Cosimato in Trastevere was dwelled since 1230 by the Camaldolensians, who were withdrawn from that place by the same Gregory a few years after, S. Silvestro in Capite at the feed of the Qurinale hill and in closeness to the Colonna’s Roman residence was for long in the possession of the Benedictines who abandoned the place after Jacopo Colonna received permission by Pope Honorius IV., to install a community of sorores there in 1285. This community followed the modified Rule of the Poor Clares which was granted to the royal foundation of Longchamps near Paris. Like the first foundation, the early community of Poor Clares at S. Silvestro consisted of daughters noble, but, moreover, entailed several recluses who Jacopo’s sister Margherita has gathered during her unrest religious life which is reported by two legends, the Vita Prima written by the earliest abbess Stefania around 1290, the Vita Secunda by Margarete’s brother, the highly influential Roman senator Giovanni Colonna some years later. The paper aims to shed further light on the earliest phases of existence of both communities by investigating the narrative, but also normative, particularly hitherto unpublished sources. By pointing ot their main supporters, their topographical setting and the social background of the sanctimoniales, the integration of the communities into the “urban spiritual landscape” of Rome will be outlined. Furthermore, a comparison of the foundation circumstances and promoting participants of both settlements aims to juxtapose Papal and Aristocratic policies in the 1230s and 1280s and the changes they underwent.
“The Rise of Ahmed Pesqual: Muslim Wealth, Power and Prestige in Late Thirteenth-Century Spain”
Isabel O’Connor, Indiana University South Bend
In the 1280s and 1290s, the Kingdom of Valencia experienced significant growth. An increase in population afforded the Christian conquerors the opportunity to consolidate their power through the institutions that they had established in the 1240s. Stability, however, was not limited to the Christians. The Mudejars or conquered Muslims, also witnessed a period of growth under the leadership of a new group of Mudejars who did not belong to the traditional military or intellectual elite. These average Mudejars, who remain largely unknown to us, no longer led military uprisings against the Christians; instead, they learned how to do business with their new neighbors and prosper without compromising their identity. Based on the unexplored records of the court of Cocentaina, my paper examines the life of Ahmed Pesqual, a local Mudejar, who felt equally comfortable doing business with Mudejars and Christians. Indeed, his Mudejar identity only came to the surface at times of conflict with his Christian business partners. An analysis of Ahmed s activities will show how individual Mudejars crossed religious, cultural and economic boundaries on a daily basis, and more importantly, how each individual Mudejar understood and lived the social reality of the 1290s in the Kingdom of Valencia.
“Convents, Conversion and Confines: How to Avoid an Unwanted Marriage in Early Modern Dalmatia”
Eric Dursteler, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah
The marriage strategies of late medieval and early modern families have been the subject of much study. The literature on Italian women is particularly well-developed, and there is a growing corpus of scholarship on families in the Ottoman Empire and the broader Muslim world in the same period. These two scholarly traditions have for the most part, however, remained in isolation from each other. This paper will compare the marital strategies of two families and the ways in which the young women involved were successfully able to parry their parents attempts to arrange unwanted marriages for them. What makes these two cases of particular interest is that they straddle the political and religious boundaries between the Ottoman and Venetian empires, and between Islam and Christianity. The two young women, one the Christian daughter of a Zaratine noble family, the other the Muslim daughter of a powerful Ottoman governor, were both faced with marriages they did not desire. What is revealing is that both young women subverted their families plans and were able to assert a degree of agency in strikingly similar fashion, through the use of the borders of the region, religious conversion and the relative safety of convent walls in Venice. The similarities between these two cases suggests the need for a more complex, fluid understanding of Mediterranean women s identity t hat transcends a narrow regional or religious focus. They also suggest unique ways in which Mediterranean women used geographical, political and cultural frontiers as a means to subordinate the cultural structures of their day.
7C. Philosophy and Literature
Chair: Stephen Gingerich, Cleveland State University, Ohio
“Miguel de Unamuno and Ortega y Gasset: Two Mediterranean Philosophers Facing the Abyss of Modernity”
Joseph A. Agee, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia
Most histories of philosophy indicate that, other than the Scholastic luminary, Francisco Suárez, there were no identifiable Spanish philosophers until the 20th century. Unfortunately, when two names do finally surface, Unamuno and Ortega, they are routinely lumped together as existentialists leaving the vague impression that Spain s contribution to the intellectual discussion of the modern world was only partial and, because of its lack of a philosophical tradition, not particularly relevant. The purpose of my paper will be to demonstrate that the two Spanish thinkers represent the radically opposing poles of modernity and offer highly original and relevant solutions that are still viable for the postmodern world we now live in. Unamuno s approach can be readily observed in the titles of his well-know essays, The Tragic Sense of Life and The Agony of Christianity, He struggled heroically with the contradiction between faith and reason. Although he refused to accept the dominance of scientific thinking to settle pressing human questions, he was equally adamant about not ignoring the challenge that reason represented to faith. In this regard, Unamuno expressed in poignant but absolutely clear terms the dilemma facing believers of all religions. Ortega s approach is less obvious because of an unusual combination of philosophical ideas that range from the history and methodology of science to the existential and metaphysical need to explore the ultimate questions of life. The result has been a general misunderstanding of his work, both inside and outside of Spain, which characterizes his thought as somewhere between a conservative cultural elitist to a precursor of postmodernism. Regardless of the accuracy of these descriptions, Ortega believed that science and technology have always under laid the basic structure of thinking and our cognitive vision of the world. Thus the unsettling reactions to major changes in scientific paradigms such as the Copernican Revolution and Einstein s theory of relativity along with quantum indeterminacy. However, he stubbornly denied that science could provide answers human problems rather these had to be left up to metaphysical speculation. In the background of both philosophers lies the Mediterranean tendency to privilege immediate life concerns over theory and conceptual thinking. However, it may that coming from this cultural orientation gave them the ability to transcend the dominant ideas of Northern European and Anglo-American and provide original solutions to problems that may have escaped their philosophical brothers from other countries.
“Europe’s Frenzy: Spanish and European Universality in the Thought of María Zambrano”
Recent work on the phenomenological tradition s interpretation of Europe presents Europe as an infinite project striving for the definition and continual realization of universality. In Husserl and Heidegger, this idea involves a reading of the philosophical tradition from Greece to the various philosophical, scientific and cultural crises of the last two centuries. A key element of this project is Europe s self-transcendence towards the other: paradoxically, to be European is to attempt to reduce all cultural, linguistic or individual particularity to arrive at a conception of the world that would be binding for all of humanity. The renewed attempt to ground objective knowledge took place from a phenomenological perspective, which is to say that it begins by attending first and foremost to the way in which the world comes to appearance in or as subject and object. Spanish thinkers, at this time, struggled with their relation to Europe, both in the sense that they puzzled over their belonging to Europe and they questioned whether their distance from a culture in crisis was not in fact their greatest asset. Nonetheless, from Unamuno and the Generation of 98 to the generation of thinkers gathered around Ortega y Gasset, thinking about Spanishness also gave rise to a self-conception that went back to ancient Greece (or in the case of Ortega, to Mediterranean peoples in general) and involved a universal human experience. In addition, though the concept of phenomenology differed significantly in its usage in Spanish and German philosophy, the Spanish meditation on universality has everything to do with human finitude and the horizon of lived human experience. In my presentation, I will elaborate briefly on the connections made above, focusing especially on María Zambrano s presentation of Spanishness in Thought and Poetry in Spanish Life. Zambrano s 1939 essay takes up some of the claims of her teacher Ortega y Gasset, yet her definition of Spain as a land of poets significantly complicates Ortega s emphasis on raw vision in Meditations on Don Quijote. Her discussion of the polemical relationship between philosophy and poetry recalls Heidegger s contemporary discussions of Hölderlin and Nietzsche. Unlike her later work, such as The Agony of Europe, Zambrano s early work focuses on a Spain at the margins of the European project for rational self-transcendence towards the other, but a Spain whose attunement to marginally rational experiences also offers insight into a concept of universality with a particularly ethical bent.
“Auf Wiedersehen Deutschland, hola Mallorca: A Mallorquin Heimat”
Petra M. Bagley, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK
In this paper I intend to discuss how the typical image of Mallorca as an island paradise, renown for mass tourism for over a century and once the favourite holiday destination of Germans overlooks the fact that writers have been attracted to this island for nearly 200 years, from the writings of George Sand in the 19th century through the exile literature of Harry Graf Kessler and Karl Otten, amongst others, to the setting for contemporary crime novels. The focus of this paper will be to situate literary texts of relocation in relation to travel writing and the contemporary vogue for relocating to warmer climates. Worthy of discussion is the way in which the experience of living between two languages, between two cultures, has inspired such narratives, which are difficult to categorize in literary terms, since they form a sub-genre of travel writing. It is only during the last two decades that travel writing has become an object of study in its own right with authors such as Mary Louise Pratt and Paul Fussell mapping out its history, theorizing it and exploring issues of ethics and identity. Simultaneously, travel and exploration narratives as literary creations have emerged as an important topic of study. The texts discussed here combine features of both areas of research, since these partly autobiographical works provide us with an insight into Mallorquin life, the people, events and the landscape, usually by dint of a first-person narrator. In the role of observer—of the self and others—the writers narrate cultural difference.
“Transgressions in Assia Djebar’s Writing: Being, Space and Women’s Bodies”
Louisa Matmati, University of Annaba, Algeria
My paper will focus on Assia Djebar’s particularity of writing in selected novels. It will emphasize the writer’s approach to autobiography as a polyphonic text and her treatment of the struggle for identity in a self divided by language and culture. The paper will then argue Djebar’s troubled relationship with the French language in her writing of an autobiography as she considers it both veiling and unveiling. It aims at showing how Assia Djebar exiled first linguistically and then physically uses her memory and that of silenced Algerian women to revive her country’s history. In doing so, Djebar opens up a space where Algerian women can express themselves beyond all the “hudud” (the limitations imposed on them) and refigures the body and its dynamic as a site to create such spaces of empowerment. I shall also attempt to demonstrate the writer’s relationship with feminism particularly the Islamic feminism through the study of her novel Far From Medina in which the interweaving of women voices as well as women’s transmissions inscribes a female collective voice. This polyphony is intended-Djebar insists-to bring the Muslim woman on the scene of Islamic history and create multifaceted spaces of political empowerment.
8A. Contemporary Mediterranean
Chair: Thomas Demmelhuber, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
“The Political Economy of Authoritarianism in the Mediterranean—Implications for International Donor Cooperation”
International donor institutions (such as IMF, World Bank or the EU) still hope to launch further economic and political reforms in the authoritarian strip of the Southern Mediterranean by liberalizing the respective economies and integrating them into the global market. Eventually this paradigm is aimed at overcoming the obvious deadlocks and obstacles for sustainable development, often arising from underlying mechanisms of rent-seeking economies with neo-patrimonial types of governance. Beginning in the early 1990s and further enhanced in recent years we witness comprehensive economic reform agendas in the Southern Mediterranean. But whereas for international actors economic reform shall be directed towards liberalization that should pave the way for political reform, the ruling elites in the Mediterranean have embarked on a reform process but adhere to their own understanding of it: It is a certain kind of gradualism and a top-down approach, fully in line with consolidating the power structure of the ruling elite and neglecting any true spirit of political and economic liberalism. The prospective paper tries to discuss exit strategies from this obvious dilemma in international donor and economic cooperation regarding current patterns of the political economies in the Mediterranean.
“Partners or Friendly Neighbors? The Evolution of Cross-Border Cooperation in the Mediterranean from the Euromed Partnership to the European Neighborhood Policy”
Walid Bakhos, University of Montreal, Canada
Many analysts consider the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) as a setback for the Euromed Partnership (EMP) underlining that the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPC) have retreated from the status of partners to one of simple neighbors (Moisseron, 2005). Others have criticized the rise of the security agenda in the ENP (Jeandesboz, 2007) and the strengthening of intergovernmental and bilateral relations between Europe and its neighbors as a clear departure from the holistic ambition of the EMP (Youngs, 2006). Although these concerns are legitimate, a further scrutiny of the ENP shows however that interesting advances have been made in terms of cross-border cooperation, with the implementation of programs bringing together local actors, regions and cities of both sides of the Mediterranean. Even if these programs are still relatively limited financially, our argument is that a qualitative appraisal of such projects, through a constructivist perspective, is important in order to improve our overall assessment of the regionalization process in the Mediterranean. The present contribution proposes to bring new insights on the evolution of decentralized and territorial cooperation in the Mediterranean, based on a series of interviews with European officials (in related directorates and delegations) and their counterparts in the MPC carried out in 2006 and 2007. More specifically, our proposal aims at showing how Euro-Mediterranean actors attempt to identify common environmental and territorial concerns, build an identifiable discourse based on the shift from a technical to a strategic lexicon and strengthen horizontal networks of governance, while trying to bypass dominating state-led relations.
“The Political Culture of the Republic of Cyprus”
Hubert Faustmann, University of Nicosia, Cyprus
Since the division of Cyprus, the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot sides have each developed their own political culture, although the origins of those different political cultures date back to the years prior to 1974. Moreover, a uniformed observer might assume that the political culture of the Greek Cypriot south and the Turkish Cypriot north are identical or extremely similar with those of their respective mother countries. The overwhelming majority of Greek and Turkish Cypriots do in fact identify with those countries to varying degrees. But their political culture is remarkably different from those of their mother countries. This paper argues that the two main communities on this island, located at the crossroads of three continents, show different and in many aspects more Western European features than their mother countries mainly for historic reasons.
While a comparative aspect is maintained, this paper will focus on the contemporary political culture of the Greek Cypriot dominated south by looking at typical political behavior and general political features. Special emphasis will be given to the relationship between the citizen and the state, the role of political parties, the level of democracy, the degree of (political) corruption, the role of women in politics, the political consciousness of the Greek Cypriots as well as the degree and form of political participation.
“Turkey, Greece, Italy and Security in the Mediterranean Area”
Vladislav B. Sotirovic, Vilnius University, Lithuania
The research paper is focused on the participation of Turkey, Greece and Italy to the issue of contemporary Mediterranean security. The aim of the research is to discover and present their Mediterranean policies, common security regional attitudes, but also and strategic dissimilarities and even sources of potential conflicts. To fulfill the research task the methodology of comparison is going to be used. The paper is divided into four chapters: 1. importance of the Mediterranean area during and after the Cold War; 2. Turkish Mediterranean policy within the NATO; 3. Greek participation into Mediterranean security system; and 4. Italian Mediterranean position.
8B. Turkish Music
Chair: Juan La Manna, State University of New York Oswego
“A Good Example of Turkish Music Forms: ‘Mevlevi Ceremonies (Ayin-i Şerif)’”
Zeynep Barut, Istanbul Technical University, State Conservatory of Turkish Music, Turkey
The Mevlevi ceremony is the greatest form of our music not only for the religious music but also for the other kinds-non-religious ones. The Mevlevi ceremonies (Ayin-i Şerif), defined as the biggest and the most glorious of the Turkish music’s melody forms, are the ceremonies which are played with the SEMA, a kind of a religious service. For many years, Mevlevi schools have been a good example of training and education. Many of the Mevlevi composers have given performances for different kinds of music as well. They have been given their education in such Mevlevi schools. Each of the Mevlevi Ceremony consists of 4 parts, named ‘selam.’ Every part is composed with different and variant methods. Ceremonies are named with the first Selam’s music in which they are composed. The number of the melodies is not known clearly. Lyrics are mostly chosen from the works of the founder of Mevlevi religious order Mevlana Jalal-ud Din Rumi (1207-1274?). Lyrics are in Persian. Some of the sufistic poems have been used as lyrics. In ceremonies, every move every detail have the feeling of sufism. This study, consisting Ayin-i Şerif,the instruments played, Hz. Mevlana-mevlevilik and the ceremony of the composition of music and dance, will be given properly.
“Periodic Analysis of Şarki Form in Turkish Music”
Fatma Gökdel, Istanbul Technical University, State Conservatory of Turkish Music, Turkey
The form of “şarkı,” the first sample of which had been seen in the 17th century, was elobarated day by day and many composers used this form. The origin of the word “şarkı” depends on the Sumerian and the common type is in French “chanson” in it. “Canzone,” in Eng.” song,” in German “Lied.” Şarkı is described as harmonical and melodic vocal scales in various tones that create different feelings, lyrical composition, the melodies that can be sung by everyone. While analyzing the periods and phases of this form, the determinative components are the important personalities who composed şarkı not the time periods as centuries. The most important composer is certainly Hacı Arf bey. In this study, which is titled “Periodic Analysis of Şarkı Form In Turkısh Music,” after and before Hacı Arif Bey, his contemporaries are discussed, with the sample Works, the şarkı and the style of singing şarkı shows a difference according to the social changes in the periods are analyzed.
“Nakis in Turkish Music”
Şerife Güvençoğlu, Istanbul Technical University, State Conservatory of Turkish Music, Turkey
Nakis is one of the most elegant, ornamented and classic high-art forms in Turkish Music. It has been used since A. Mergi in the fourteenth century with some differences and has continued until present. The most important point in the characteristic of Nakis form is the plentifulness and agility in the way it is sung and the reason why this form is called Nakis is the nimbleness, garnish and grace used in its structure. Because of its character nearly every classic composer tried to write some songs in Nakis form and again nearly every classic composer tried to prove his own mastership, skill and difference from the others by writing compositions in Nakis form. Nakis Bestes and Semais have always been used in fasils Nakis Beste is generally used after the first Beste instead of the second Beste, Nakis Agir Semai is used instead of Murabba Agir Semai and Nakis Yürük Semai is used as the last vocal song of Fasil. Nakis Beste-s are composed of only two sections and this is the most important point between the compositions to differentiate Nakis Bestes and Murabbas from one another. Nakis have always had differences according to their forms, music, understanding and tastes since the first day they have been composed.
8C. Medieval and Renaissance Literature
Chair: Caroline Jewers, University of Kansas, Lawrence
“The Enigma of Ricoldo da Montecroce: Authority, Authorship, and Audience in Religious Polemic”
Larry J. Simon, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo
Ricoldo da Montecroce was born in the early 1240s in Florence and died there at Santa Maria Novella in 1320; he became a Dominican in 1267, traveled to the Holy Land in 1288, returning possibly as late as 1302. He was distressed in the extreme by the massacre of his Dominican brethren with the fall of Acre in 1291, traveled widely, and studied in Baghdad as part of his missionary work for perhaps as long as a decade. The Contra legem Sarracenorum, his best known work, was reprinted often, and influenced, among others, Martin Luther’s attitudes toward Muslims. His Itinerarium has attracted the attention of modern scholars and been translated into Italian and French a number of times. Very little attention has been paid to his five Epistolae de perditione Acconis, and even lesser attention to his Ad nationes orientales, a work which treats, inter alia, of the Mongols, Jews, and eastern Christians. Recent scholarship has called attention to the almost willful lack of sophisticated knowledge of Islam in his “Contra legem Sarracenorum,” and to the fact that the descriptive first half of his “Itinerarium” is then followed by a rather vituperative anti-Islamic polemic in the second half. In this paper I wish to revisit these questions, but to widen the scope of the discussion by including his “Epistolae” and his “Ad nationes orientales.” The seeds of his sorrow and concomitant vituperation appear early; his reliance on authority over experience, even his own knowledge and experience, returns us to questions of medieval (and modern) authorship; and as is illustrated with Ricoldo and by comparisons with Dominican brethren of his such as Alfonso Buenhombre, whose anti-Jewish work was so popular in Germany and elsewhere, but has truly been completely overlooked in the historiography of inter-religious polemic, a growth industry of late, scholarship is still very far from constructing a sociology of knowledge.
“Heroic Measures: Decoding Medieval Heroes through Medieval Emotion Theory”
This paper addresses the Oxford Chanson de Roland through the lens of lexical analysis and medieval theories of emotion. Contemporary metaphysical theories have much to offer in helping us decipher medieval literature, and we have overlooked them as factual accessories to the fictions of the time. Unlike modern psychological theory, medieval explorations of the psyche are articulated for the most part in long, theological and philosophical tracts—but they are there, and the literary genres that boomed at the same time are as much expressive vehicles for emotion as for codes of courtliness or chivalry. Taking the Liber Floridus as an example, its semantic field of violence, rage and general bad behavior is a perfect illustration for the destructive demesure that affects key characters in the Oxford Roland and its later redactions. Using analysis of literary texts interwoven with illustrations from Prudentius’s Hamartigenia, Aquinas’s De Malo, and Brunetto Latini’s Livre dou tresor, I examine the notions of anger, revenge, and guilt that characterize the mind-set of the feudal epic in order to illustrate that medieval thinking about the soul and the workings of the mind have a lot to tell us about how the texts that intrigue us, intrigued them.
“The Transfer of Saints from Eastern to Western Shores of the Mediterranean in Reality, Myth, and Legend”
Mary M. Rowan, Brooklyn College, New York
Almost from the initial establishment of Christianity in the Levant, traffic arose as the cults of saints travelled from the Eastern to the Western Shores of the Inland Sea through the methods of real pursuit of the cult of relics when the body of St. Nicolas was robbed from his grave in Turkey to be re-buried as the center of worship in Bari, Italy. Myths include that of St. Reparate, borne on angels’ wings across the sea to become the patroness of Nice. Mythic transpositions of the Marian legends include the magical flight of her house to Loreto, Italy. Legend early fixed the flight of the Magdalene after the crucifixion, in her own ship which landed near Marseille and where her penitential cave may still be visited at St. Baume de Provence. The Magdalene’s servant, Sarah, became the focus of worship by the European Gypsies who still gather to celebrate her miracles every autumn at Les Saintes-Maries-de la Mer. Finally, saints travelled through visions of the faithful like St. James of Compostella, envisioned during a battle against the Moors, who sparked the great shrine in Northern Spain. Many other Saints rallied armies against the Moors through visions. A study of these transfers will reveal the power of history, myth and legend as each functions in its own way to create real spaces in foreign lands where an exotic new faith, Christianity, put down roots in folk practices to become accepted. The interaction of history, myth and legend worked to create institutions in the new lands that soon became integrated into their own local traditions and part of their own myths of origin.
“Jacques Cartier and Jean de Lery: Two Narrators of Difference”
Susan L. Rosenstreich, Dowling College, Oakdale, New York
Sailing to the New World in the service of 16th century French kings, Jacques Cartier and Jean de Lery arrived at two distinctly different ports. Cartier’s explorations of the American northeast revealed a natural world that had little to do with that encountered by Jean de Lery along the coast of South America. But in one important sense, Cartier and de Lery were greeted by the same sight upon arrival in the New World: a land completely unlike France. How to describe this difference? In this presentation, Cartier’s “Voyages au Canada” and de Lery’s “Histoire d’un voyage faict en la terre du Bresil” stand out as seminal texts in the French tradition of narrated difference. Read comparatively, the narratives yield opposing views of the order of things, reflecting in that contrast both the anxiety and excitement of Renaissance France on the verge of that nation’s hegemony.