Universitá di Cagliari, Via Is Mirrionis, 1
1A. Frontiere mediterranee della Corona di Spagna: l’area italiana
Chair: Pietro De Leo, Università della Calabria.
Pietro De Leo, “Le incursioni nel Mezzogiorno d’Italia tra Mare Jonio e mare Adriatico nei documenti ecclesiastici (secc.XV-XVII)”
Interessanti e inedite notizie intorno alle incursioni saracene nell’Italia Meridionale, in particolare nelle coste calabre dello Jonio e del Tirreno, si trovano nei documenti pontifici ed episcopali, ma anche nelle tradizioni popolari legate al culto e alle devozioni, che fotografano stati d’animo e situazioni legate alla vita quotidiana, come anche giudizi e valutazioni su popoli e religioni diverse.
Anna Maria Oliva, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Rapporti tra Corona di Spagna e Curia pontificia all’epoca di Carlo V: la questione turca nei dispacci degli ambasciatori spagnoli a Roma”
Nel corso del XV secolo il Papato assume sempre piu il molo di vero arbitro della politica italiana ed europea. La curia pontificia e in quegli anni infatti arbitra della politica intemazionale sia per la situazione italiana che per quella europea, per gli aspetti politici connessi alle scoperte atlantiche come per quelli relativi all'espansione turca in Europa e nel Mediterraneo La Curia pontificia, per la sua centralita, dunque, costituisce una prospettiva storiografica di grande interesse. ARoma operavano, gia dall'epoca di Ferdinando il Cattolico, ambasciatori spagnoli residenti accreditati presso il pontefice. Le relazioni che costoro inviavano a Carlo V, e le istruzioni che l'imperatore ampartiva ai propri rappresentanti, conservate presso l'Archivio generale di Simancas, costituiscono una fonte preziosa sia per analizzare "dal di dentro" la politica spagnola di contrasto all'espansione turca, sia per meglio conoscere l'impatto che la questione turca aveva sugli ambienti ecclesiastici e sulle iniziative politiche del pontefice. In particolare ci si soffermera sull'attivita di Miquel May ambasciatore di Carlo V negli anni 1528-1532, anni moIto delicati nei rapporti tra corona di Spagna e Curia dopo il drarnmatico Sacco della citta. OItre al molo,moIto significativo dell'ambasciatore, verranno esaminati anche i rapporti intercorsi tra Carlo V ed aIti esponenti della Chiesa presenti in Curia, semplici ecclesiastici, vescovi e cardinali, che a diverso titolo erano referenti in quegli anni per l'imperatore
Lorenzo Tanzini, Università di Cagliari, “Il Magnifico e il Turco: Political, Economic and Cultural Features of the Relations between Florence and the Ottoman Empire in the Age of Lorenzo de Medici”
The Ottoman empire was in second half of the fifteenth century one of the most important economic partners for florentine manifacturing, in particular for wool production and market. This is the main reason of the complex attitude of the florentine politics, leaded by the Medici family, towards the Turk sovereings. These relations are strenghtened during the 70s and 80s, when Lorenzo il Magnifico sent some different agents in Ottoman empire, in order to replace the venetian merchants in eastern Mediterranean and to keep the ottoman danger as a weapon against the Neapolitan king Ferrante. The paper aims to analyse, with reference to the official and familiar corrrespondence, the complexity of this politics, which had to face with the general christian dues for the fight against Islam, specially after the big fear of the ottoman attack against Otranto (1480). At the same time, I would like to show that this florentine politics was not extraneus to some cultural interest of medicean circles, as witnessed by the geopraphical treatise of Francesco Berlinghieri dedicated to the sultan’s brother, and by the works about Islam of Marsilio Ficino, good friend of Lorenzo, where some elements of the irenic christianism of Niccolò Cusano are reconsidered.
Nicola Melis, Università di Cagliari, “The Ottoman Idea of Defence According to Some Ottoman Documents”
In the XVI C. the organization of the military border divided European, Ottoman and Safavid territories. The Ottoman defence system on the military borders assumed a centralized and efficient structure depending on the distance from the Capital. The closer Istanbul was from the border, the more the central administration took direct responsibility for military administration of the frontier zone. The topic of my paper is to show more evidence about this assumption in the light of some Ottoman documents.
1B. Istituzioni e cultura materiale nella Sardegna medievale
Chair: Giorgio Murru, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari
Giorgio Murru, “Note sulla Marmilla e il castello di Las Plassas alla luce delle più recenti campagne di scavo”
Giovanni Serreli, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “La frontiera meridionale del regno giudicale d’Arborea: un’area strategica di fondamentale importanza per la storia medievale sarda”
Giuseppe Seche, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Genova e Pisa nella Sardegna del XII secolo: le relazioni fra le due repubbliche attraverso l’incoronazione di Barisone nel 1164”
Andrea Pala, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Flussi di circolazione delle merci e della cultura mediterranea, alla luce della documentazione sulla cultura lignea medievale in Sardegna”
La documentazione sulla scultura lignea medievale in Sardegna annovera poche testimonianze, riportate nelle fonti scritte; altrettanto scarse le opere superstiti. La più antica attestazione risale al XII secolo: si tratta di una dotazione di arredi sacri, elargita dal nobile turritano Forato di Gitil e da sua moglie Susanna Dezzori alla chiesa benedettina di San Nicola di Silanis, nella quale vengono enumerati due crocifissi lignei. Manufatti che si sono persi nel tempo e di cui si ha testimonianza materiale solo nel secolo successivo, con un gruppo di Deposizione conservato nella parrocchiale di Bulzi. In base alla presenza di quest opera, di possibile provenienza dall Italia centrale, in base alle testimonianze scritte, così come all esistenza in Sardegna di opere in legno ascritte al XIV secolo, verranno proposti i possibili flussi di circolazione delle opere d arte, intese come merci, e delle maestranze, che coinvolsero l isola nel Mediterraneo occidentale dal XII al XIV secolo.
1C. Mediterranean Studies I
Chair: Orna Almog, Kingston University, UK
Nuray Özdemir, University of Abant Izzet Baysal, Bolu, Turkey, “A Further Step for Peace in the Mediterrenean after World War II: The Mediterranean Games”
Sports in the world is seen as an
important tool in the introduction of countries to each other and in the
protection of peace. The Mediterranean Games first of which was held in Egypt
between 5-20 October 1951 was a considerable step in consolidating friendship,
in forming cultural ties, and in building peace among countries which have a
border on the Mediterranean, after the II. World War. During the 1948 London
Olympics, Egyptian National Olympics Committee Manager Muhammed Tahir’s idea of
creating a regional olympics was supported by the representatives of the
olympics committees of Mediterranean countries and it was decided that the
first Mediterranean Games be held in Egypt. Egypt, France, Italy, Spain,
Lebanon, Malta, Syria, Turkey and Greece sent sportsmen to the Mediterranean
Games which were held between 5-20 October. Turkey participated in the games in
athletism, basketball and free-style wrestling branches with 34 sportsmen. The
arrival of Turkish sportsmen in Egypt was carefully followed by the Turkish
public. Newspapers allocated space for the developments in the Mediterranean
Games through specially designed sports pages. The Turkish Public who was
distressed due to the political and economic troubles caused by the events of
period after the II World War showed particular attention to the Games and the
successes gained by the Turkish sportsmen became a great source of pride.
Turkey won 10 gold, 3 silver and 6 bronze; 19 medals in total and the
Mediterranean Games found its place in the Turkish sports history as a
Serena Dalla Valle, Cà Foscari University, Venice, “Marocco: tra dichiarazioni di riforme politiche e persistenza di conservatorismo sociale: Una lettura politica delle elezioni legislative 2007”
La maggior parte degli studi che si occupano del processo di democratizzazione nei paesi arabi ha recentemente dimostrato l’esistenza di una differenza sostanziale tra definizione teorica dei processi di transizione e realtà empirica, sottolineando l’importanza dei fattori storici, culturali e politici che sottendono la trasformazione dei regimi. La mia contribuzione intende dimostrare che un sistema politicamente ed economicamente aperto, basato su multipartitismo e alternanza al governo, non è sufficiente ad aprire uno spazio democratico all’interno delle istituzioni o permettere un sostanziale rinnovamento delle elite politiche. Il caso studio di questo paper, attraverso l’analisi del contesto politico attuale del Marocco ed in particolare delle recenti elezioni legislative di settembre 2007, si concentrerà sui progressi e sulle regressioni del paese nella “consolidazione della scelta democratica” (Tozy M., “Journal of Democracy”, January 2008). L’analisi si focalizzerà sulla pratica elettorale – meccanismo elettorale, contesto giuridico, osservazione della campagna elettorale e risultati del voto – e sulle principali problematiche che caratterizzano il “momento elettorale” allo scopo di far risaltare gli indicatori contradditori evidenziati da questo scrutinio. Nonostante gli sforzi da parte dell’amministrazione centrale verso una maggiore trasparenza e credibilità, queste elezione non si è rivelata un reale test per la democrazia interna del Marocco né un per il processo di rinnovamento della sua classe politica, la cui “resistenza” sembra motivata dalla riluttanza ad un’eventuale alternanza delle forze al potere e dalla volontà di impedire l’avanzata del partito islamico moderato della Giustizia e Sviluppo (PJD). Secondo una prospettiva più ampia, il regime sembra aver costruito il proprio equilibrio su uno stato di transizione permanente: la Monarchia, con una strategia che combina disposizioni amministrative e cooptazione, seleziona sia gli alleati che le forze d’opposizione, controllando de facto la scena politica.
Galip Isen, Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey and Burcu Bostanoglu, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, “Diversity of Perception and Significance of Narcissism of Minor Differences in the Mediterranean”
The identification and articulation of security is an inherently political and contested process and this can be vividly observed in the recent global events where the economic and political certainties of the post-war world have been replaced by growing ontological insecurity and fear which are actively generated and used by some socio-political agencies in promotion of specific policy agendas. Collective insecurity and fear changes the societies in which it occurs and targets the body, the psyche, and the socio-cultural order and insinuates security as a direct problem, to the ordinary lives of ordinary people. Thus, the concept of security has become integral to modern life and predicting possible future outcomes has taken on greater urgency. Considering the significance of the Mediterranean region in the security projects of the world system and its distinction as a representative unique vortex of coexisting different traits within and among the societies of the basin; the region demands an encompassing approach which transcends beyond the traditional realpolitik-security mechanisms. A holistic study of Mediterranean social history reveals a persistent trait of underlining differences in the perception of self and others. This cognitive style has reflected on political, as well as social cultural and psychological processes from eons ago until the current impasses and problems racking the region. It is proposed here that, instead of being discursively and materially marginalized , this diversity could be reconceptualized as less of a problem and more of an opportunity for the development of new, alternative agendas in the region. However, in a critical geography, when such conceptions and praxes prove dysfunctional to the global interests of the world system, a resolution is bound to be imposed externally, either through negotiation and persuasion, or if that does not work, with more effective methods of conviction. The aim of this paper is to study the possibilities of how, by accepting and appreciating the differences, along with proper political management, the Ionian - Anatolian Axis can turn into an active economic, social, cultural, political and ideological link of the modern world not only to the Eastern Mediterranean, but also to the other worlds in the periphery.
1D. Shakespearean Identities: Ruptures, Fragments, Reflections I: A Session in Honor of David M. Bergeron
Chair: Susan O. Shapiro, University of Kansas, Lawrence
Susan O. Shapiro, “‘Antlers Vast and Deserts Idle’”: African Landscapes and Life as Fragment in Shakespeare’s Othello”
In Othello, Shakespeare obscures rather than clarifies Othello’s birthplace. Nothing in the play connects Othello to a precise place, but rather to a large geographical and cultural region. In his own references to his origins, Othello relies upon a storehouse of widespread popular images and beliefs about Africa, rather than recollections of identifiable locations. Othello’s life seems caught between stability anchored in his marriage to a Venetian woman and the instability associated with fragmentary, ever-shifting experiences of memory.
Brian Harries, University of Kansas, Lawrence, “‘Our Troy, Our Rome’: Classical Culture in Shakespeare’s History Plays”
Scholarship on Shakespeare’s English history plays largely contends that the plays address questions of the legitimacy and the fitness to rule of England’s fifteenth-century monarchs. Elizabeth’s descent from these rulers, and the eventual uncertainty of royal succession, caused these questions to resonate with a contemporary audience. When the scholarship addresses the classical references in the plays, however, it largely dismisses them as esoteric ornamentation in the work of a young playwright. This paper contends, instead, that the references to Troy and Rome play on the common understanding of the English nation as descended from Aeneas and London as “New Troy.” In 1 Henry VI, in particular, Trojan references combine with other descriptors to define a matrix of identities that aligns “English,” “Trojan” and “Holy” on one side, with “French,” “Greek,” and “demonic” grouped on the other. This results in an English identity in the plays that combines classical and Christian notions of piety into a new ideal.
Mary Dudy Bjork, Arizona State University, Tempe, “Sonnet 73 and the Myth of the Phoenix”
Dympna Callaghan’s characterization of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 73 as a poem in which the sonneteer “ponders aging. . . as the embers of his soon to be extinguished life” is characteristic of critical thought on this famous poem. In this paper I suggest that Shakespeare’s use of hysteron proteron in the first quatrain and his choice of the Phoenix myth in the last as a dominant metaphor lead to an alternative interpretation of this poem. For the rhetoric device of hysteron proteron is used to adumbrate the theme of rebirth in the poem, a theme that is introduced through the Phoenix myth. That myth is a powerful, life-affirming symbol that Shakespeare returns to again and again in his poems and plays, and in sonnet 73, it brings hope into an ostensibly melancholy and hopeless poem.
1E. Aprovechamiento de recursos de plomo y plata. Interacción comercial y cultural en el mediterráneo occidental: relaciones entre la península ibérica y cerdeña
Chair: Marie-Christine Bailly-Maître, Université de Provence
Núria Rafel, Universitat de Lleida, España, “Explotación minero-metalúrgica en el área Molar-Bellmunt-Falset (Cataluña), siglos VIII aC a XV dC. Investigaciones recientes”
A study based on compositional and isotopic analyses of minerals and manufactured objects from the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula and their respective archaeological and cultural contexts evidence a significant lead mineral exploitation activity in the El Priorat area (Tarragona province) linked to Phoenician trade (7th-6th centuries BCE). This exploitation continued, despite losing intensity, until the Romanization of the territory. The behavior pattern of the circulation of lead, silver and copper in Catalonia indicates a plurality of contemporary supply sources, although, at least from the 5th century BCE on, with a notable importance of the minerals and metals from the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. The finding of an ancient gallery with roman iron picks and pottery shows continuity of mining work trough Roman Age. Archaeological evidence, as much as written sources, provided information about de continuity of the exploitation in medieval age, from XI to XV century AD, when silver is intensely exploited.
Albert Martínez Elcacho, Universitat de Lleida, España, “De Cerdeña a Cataluña a petición del conde Pedro de Prades: mineros y técnicos sardos trabajando en las minas de plata de Falset Bellmunt del Priorat (1342-1358)”
Infant Peter of Aragon (son of King James II of Aragon) became Count of Prades in 1342. In a few years, he promoted and developed an important silver mining industry, which was regulated by three ordinances. To succeed, Count Peter has requested help from the Sardinian miners and technicians. In fact, Sardinia was under the rule of Crown of Aragon. First of all, three mining experts came from Iglesias (Sardinia) to Falset (Catalonia, Spain) for working in mines and silver ores in 1343. One of these technicians, Leonardo de Dino, remained in Falset and some years after became the responsible of doing trials on silver ores. However, was in 1348 after Black Death when Count of Prades intensified the contacts with Sardinia. So, from 1348 to 1349, he appealed to all those Sardinian miners who want to go to Falset Bellmunt mines, he requested six slaves for working in silver exploitation and also he requested a copy of Sardinian ordinances about silver mining. In this sense, finally, nine Sardinian miners answered the Count call and arrived to Falset in 1350. To sum up, contacts between silver mining in Falset Bellmunt area and Sardinia were constant and continuous in mid-14th Century.
Ignacio Montero-Ruiz, Instituto de Historia (CSIC), Madrid, España, “Madrid Lead Mining and Trade in the 1st Millennium BC: Iberian Metal Resources Using Lead Isotope Analyses”
Exploitation of mineral resources is documented in the Iberian Peninsula since prehistoric times. Nevertheless, known data of mining activities previous to Roman times are scarce. Lead isotope analyses allow us to obtain indirect evidences of these extractive activities. In this case study, we focus on the possible exploitation of lead ores in the north-eastern area of the Iberian Peninsula during the 1st millennium BC. The historical evolution of its use during this period is studied in relation to other better documented resources, such as the mining districts of Jaen, Murcia and Huelva, usually considered the most important lead sources in Western Mediterranean.
1F. Immigration, Dislocation, and Identity
Chair: Emilia Perassi, Università degli Studi di Milano
Patrizia Spinato Bruschi, ISEM – CNR, Milano, “L’emigrazione italiana in Guatemala attraverso la letteratura”
From different perspectives, the lecture means to focus on the peculiar experience and complications of Italian emigration in Guatemala, mostly at the beginning of the last century, and its literary reading. Contemporary writers have often approached the theme of displacement and uprooting in America, but it’s quite unusual to find a voice who tells stories about small communities of emigrants. This is the case of Italians in Guatemala, whose cultural identity has been represented in the latest novel of Dante Liano. By analyzing his work, we would try to speculate about the links among history, biography, exile and literary creation.
Isabella Maria Zoppi, ISEM –CNR, Torino, “Da questa parte del mare: Gianmaria Testa ed Erri De Luca nel secolo delle migrazioni”
Il cd Da questa parte del mare (2006) di Gianmaria Testa raccoglie quindici anni di riflessioni attorno al tema delle grandi migrazioni che hanno segnato il Novecento, prendendo spunto da un lato, dall’osservazione del quotidiano e da considerazioni sulla Storia, e dall’altro dalla lettura dei versi di Solo andata (2005) di Erri De Luca, con cui il cantautore collabora da anni, e dall’amicizia con il romanziere Jean-Claude Izzo (1945-2000). Prospettive e voci si fondono e si intrecciano nella scrittura di Testa per raccontare in modo originale nella forma canzone la nuova geografia umana tracciata dal fenomeno migrante tra Mediterraneo ed Europa.
Antonella Emina, ISEM – CNR, Torino, “El-Ghibli. Il caso di una rivista di letteratura della migrazione”
El-Ghibli is an Italian online review. Since June 2003 the review has been publishing migrant-resident works. The question from which they founded their action is expressed in the introducing article of the review, “What distinguishes migrancy, the migrant writing, apart from the language in which it expresses itself?” This will be the starting point of my presentation in order to investigate which kind of answers the review has been giving to the relationship between complex identities and the country where they are acting.
Martino Contu, Centro Studi SEA, Villacidro, “Dal Mediterraneo alla sponda opposta del Rio de la Plata: il fenomeno dell’emigrazione sarda in Uruguay tra Ottocento e Novecento”
La relazione pone l accento sull emigrazione sarda in Uruguay; un fenomeno quasi sconosciuto e poco studiato che presenta caratteristiche differenti rispetto all emigrazione isolana diretta in Argentina e in Brasile, paesi in testa alle preferenze dei sardi che espatriavano in America Latina. Con riferimento all Ottocento, si distinguono due fasi del flusso in uscita: la prima assume carattere prettamente politico e si inserisce nel quadro del Risorgimento italiano. Diversi volontari e giovani ufficiali sardi si trasferiscono nella Banda Oriental al seguito di Giuseppe Garibaldi. La seconda fase si colloca negli anni Settanta-Novanta. Si tratta di un emigrazione quantitativamente ridotta, determinata in parte da fattori economici, ma anche e soprattutto da scelte personali, come nei casi di Giovanni Battista Fa, medico massone, e di Giovanni Antonio Crispo Brandis, medico della Beata Maria Francesca di Gesù, nonché preside della Facoltà di Medicina di Montevideo. Negli anni Dieci e Venti del Novecento l emigrazione sarda diretta in Uruguay si inserisce nel quadro del cosiddetto grande esodo. Ad emigrare sono soprattutto pastori e contadini del centro e del nord Sardegna. L ultima ondata emigratoria si registra nel secondo dopoguerra, tra la fine degli anni Quaranta e gli anni Cinquanta. Ad emigrare sono ancora una volta pastori e contadini, ma anche minatori, alla ricerca di nuove prospettive di vita e di lavoro.
Emilia Perassi, “‘Mi propia tierra inmanejable’: idas y vueltas del emigrante italiano en la narrativa de Antonio Dal Masetto”
1G. Cultural Contact and Interaction in the Late Medieval Mediterranean
Chair: Brian N. Becker, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo
Jack Goodman, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, “Beyond Marketplace Activity: Greek Immigrants and Latins in Fourteenth-Century Palermo”
This paper explores the interaction of the foreign Greek minority in early fourteenth-century Palermo with the city s Latin majority. There were significant Greek, Muslim, and Jewish populations living on the island before 1300, but the demographics had changed by the fourteenth century. Substantial Greek and Muslim minorities had disappeared from Palermo by this time, having been replaced by a Latinized population. A new group of Greek slaves and immigrants arrived in Palermo in the fourteenth century. Previous scholarship has assumed that this Greek population only interacted with the Latin majority in the marketplace, at a time when Sicilians grew increasingly intolerant of the other. However the primary sources indicate that the Greek population was neither isolated, nor faced with ethnic conflict. The laws of King Frederick III evince hardening attitudes towards the island s non-Christian populations, yet to the Greeks, Frederick presented no restrictions upon their activities as freemen. Palermo s court records provide examples of officials defending the rights of Greeks as free men and citizens. Notarial documents prove that ethnic interaction was not limited to the marketplace. The Greeks had intimate and constant contact with Latins, and faced little isolation or hostility.
Rachel Graf, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, “Views of the Other in Riccoldo da Montecroce’s Liber Peregrinationis”
This paper will examine the Dominican Riccoldo da Montecroce s perceptions of the ethnic and religious groups he encountered during his eastern travels in the last decade of the thirteenth century. The long length of time Riccoldo spent in Baghdad, where he preached and studied the Qur an, put him in a unique position to observe and converse with these groups in detail, thus making his perceptions of them invaluable insight into the mind of a medieval pilgrim and missionary. Riccoldo described these peoples in his Liber Peregrinationis, which he wrote after returning to Italy around 1300. Also known as the Itinerarium, it follows the organization of a typical travel narrative, including descriptions of the cultures, customs, and beliefs of the Tartars, Turks, Nestorians, and Jacobites. While modern scholarship references the Itinerarium and devotes large sections to discussion of Riccoldo s mission and impressions of the East, the treatment is often superficial and only uses the work to follow Riccoldo s travel route. This paper goes beyond this usual treatment by scrutinizing not only Riccoldo s perceptions of the foreign groups he encountered, but also the context within which these encounters occurred. It thus not only makes a contribution to scholarly knowledge of one missionary s experiences in the East, but also emphasizes how an encounter s context could influence one s perception of the event.
Brian N. Becker, “The Genoese Mahona and the Jews of Chios: A Relationship of Mutual Benefit between the Governing and the Governed”
This paper examines the nature of the relationship that developed between the Genoese colonial administration and the Jewish community on Chios, after Genoa had reconquered the island from the Byzantines in 1346. The documentary basis for my inquiry consists of Genoese notarial registers, administrative documents, and contemporary Genoese histories. In general, the evidence evinces a relatively peaceful coexistence between the two groups, in which the Jews enjoyed a legal status comparable to the islands Greek populations, were protected from the hostility of Latins and Greeks, and were rewarded for their merit. A closer examination reveals, however, that the Mahona s financial dependence on the Jewish community was the primary motivation for this protection; the Genoese were not kinder and gentler colonizers by nature. A relationship of mutual dependence thus existed between the governing and the governed: the Jewish community depended on the Mahona for physical protection, and the Mahona depended on the Jewish community for a significant portion of its income. The evidence from Genoese Chios is invaluable to the historian interested in the interaction between colonizers and colonists, but the island also represents one of the few places where we have the interaction between Genoese and Jews documented, considering the lack of a significant Jewish population in medieval and Renaissance Genoa.
1H. Contemporary Euro-Mediterranean Affairs: The Construction of a Region between Normative Principles and Security Interests
Chair: Thomas Demmelhuber, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany
Andreas Marchetti, University of Bonn, Germany, “Europe’s Normative Agenda in the Mediterranean: Putting Ambitions and Rhetoric into Perspective”
Within its policies towards the Mediterranean the European Union has been constantly underlining its ambition to assist transformation towards the general aim of establishing “well-governed countries”. While democracy promotion plays a major role in the Union’s rhetoric, such a policy faces two fundamental dilemmas in practice. First, the EU has established close contractual ties to most governments and regimes in the region, although a considerable number of these regimes do not conform to the Union’s ideas of democratic governance; an offensive democratization agenda therefore puts into question the Union’s credibility as reliable international partner in the eyes of Mediterranean countries. Second, another top item on the Union’s agenda, namely the quest for security and stability – i.e. a preference for the status quo – considerably hampers the Union’s own ambition to really pursue a transformative agenda. Because of these dilemmas, the paper will argue that an explicit democratization policy might not be very effective, let alone efficient. In order to create a more realistic policy (in the original sense of the word), the EU should deconstruct some of its rhetoric, and should focus on – generally agreeable – aspects that are necessary prerequisites for any democratic development, already generating a positive impact on the lives of people and therefore positively impacting the democratization/good governance agenda nonetheless.
Anja Zorob, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, “Anchoring Reform and Macroeconomic Stability in the Mediterranean: Does the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) Add Something New?”
According to statements frequently made by representatives of the European Commission the European Neighbourhood Policy launched in 2003/2004 was primarily designed to complement and strengthen the now more than 13 years old Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP). In essence it was hoped that the new initiative with its various offers such as the promise of “a stake in the EU Internal Market” or increased financial and technical assistance could contribute to overcome some of the EMP’s major deficits and constraints. Those advocating the ENP approach and as part of it the jointly to be agreed ‘Action Plans’ mentioned among other things its potential to improve the EU’s role as an external anchor for domestic reform and stability-oriented policies in the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPC). The Association Agreements (AA) signed with the MPCs on the bilateral level within the framework of the EMP have been criticized for not offering appropriate mechanisms for catalyzing and locking-in domestic reform. This applies in particular to the agreements’ insufficient and back-loaded incentives for improving market access or ‘rewards for good policy’, the lack of detailed dispute settlement mechanisms, and the missing statement of complementary measures of structural adjustment and/or sound macroeconomic management. Using the theoretical concept of regional integration agreements (RIA) as mechanisms for ‘signalling’ and ‘commitment’ developed by the author in earlier publications as framework for analysis the paper will try to explore if the ENP really adds something new in this respect. It will review if the Actions Plans agreed on with the MPCs do include some elements which offer to improve the EU’s ability to serve as a credible anchor for reform and stability in the Mediterranean and what has been achieved in recent years contributing to a deepening and/or broadening of the provisions anchored in the AAs.
Hubert Faustmann, University of Nicosia, Cyprus, “The European Union and its Role in the Cyprus Conflict”
Most of the countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 did so in order to benefit economically and/or to stabilize their recently established democratic systems. Those motives were shared by the European Union. But, amongst the 12 new members Cyprus constituted a unique case. Cyprus did not join for economic reasons nor did the Greek Cypriots undergo a recent transformation to a democracy that needed to be stabilized through EU membership. The paper argues that the Greek Cypriots applied for political and security reasons within the context of the unresolved so called Cyprus Problem. The Greek Cypriot dominated Republic of Cyprus joined the EU with a view to use it as a security provider against a possible Turkish invasion and as an ally against Ankara in its attempt to overcome the division of the island. This background and then success of the Greek Cypriot application have made the EU an unwilling player in the Cyprus dispute. It has since then become an asset but also an additional obstacle in finding a solution. As a result the EU found itself in the precarious position that most of its members states had been eager to avoid by endorsing a settlement plan just prior to Cyprus’ accession in 2004. This paper assesses the role played by the EU prior to and after the accession within this protracted dispute and the implications of the EU involvement in Cyprus for EU-Turkish relations.
Thomas Demmelhuber, “Migration in the Southern Mediterranean: Europe’s Inglorious Search of a Strategy”
Starting with the European Security Strategy (ESS) in 2003 and later on with the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) the European Union reiterated that security, stability, and good governance in its near neighbourhood are key policy priorities. Regarding new kinds of security threats such as illegal migration and terrorism in the Southern Mediterranean we are witnessing an on-going externalisation of security cooperation in the field of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). FRONTEX, established 2004 as the central instrument in EU’s border management strategy, aims at curbing illegal migration in cooperation with the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs). It is a striking example of an EU initiative that tries to take into account local, regional, and global changes in terms of migration and at the same time adheres to continuities in the field of security perception. However questions remain whether it is a further step in bridging or deepening the lack of coherence in EU Mediterranean politics. By externalising cooperation on migration, is the EU not taking the risk to further contradict its policies in the fields of democracy promotion, rule of law, and human rights arising from the EU’s self-perception as a normative power?
2A. Frontiere mediterranee della Corona di Spagna: Il Regno di Napoli e le isole
Chair: Miguel Ángel De Bunes Ibarra, CSIC-IH, Madrid
Miguel Ángel De Bunes Ibarra, “La defensa de Nápoles y las islas en el tránsito del siglo XVI y XVII”
La Monarquía Hispanica en el siglo XVI tiene que hacer frente a un complicado modelo de defensa para controlar los avances de las flotas otomanas por el Mediterráneo Occidental. En este entramado defensivo, Sicilia y Nápoles se convierten en los ejes principales de la primera línea de control del avance la flota de Estambul. Desde Palermo y Napoles se desea controlar el resto de lso territorios italianos de la Monarquía, sistema que resulta muy costoso y que tuvo una efectividad muy reducida por problemas diversos que hay que relacionarlos tanto con la propia historia del poder central como por los caracteres de cada uno de lso territorios a controlar.
Valentina Favarò, Università di Palermo, “La Sicilia e la difesa del Mediterraneo: un esempio di modernizzazione militare”
Le tensioni sorte nel Mediterraneo nei primi anni del XVI secolo coinvolsero la monarchia cattolica in una guerra che con ritmo incessante si sarebbe protratta per l’intera età moderna. Il tentativo di arginare la presenza e l’ingerenza dell’impero ottomano nell’area occidentale del Mare Nostrum costrinse Carlo V e Filippo II a sperimentare nuove forme difensive, logisticamente più funzionali e contestualmente maggiormente adatte a rispondere alle esigenze che la “nuova forma della guerra” dettava. Soprattutto alla metà del secolo, nelle diverse province della Corona si attuarono una serie di interventi volti sia a modificare radicalmente gli assetti difensivi tipici dell’età medievale e ad attuare i principi dei recenti studi dell’architettura rinascimentale, sia a modificare la composizione degli eserciti. Di fatto, si concretizzava, lungo le coste che dalla Sicilia si estendevano sui regni di Napoli, Sardegna, Valenzia e Granada, un nuovo concetto di frontiera che avrebbe determinato la creazione di un complesso spazio difensivo, chiave emblematica del funzionamento del sistema imperiale, nell’intero suo complesso. La Sicilia, considerata per collocazione geografica antemurale dell’impero e baluardo della cristianità, fu pertanto chiamata a trasformare il proprio assetto militare attraverso un processo di “modernizzazione” militare, che rispondeva sì a una progettualità da parte del sovrano ma che si sarebbe realizzata tenendo conto delle peculiarità politiche, sociali e finanziarie del regno. L’intervento proposto avrà come oggetto 1) la definizione del sistema difensivo siciliano e l’individuazione delle linee comuni ai regni mediterranei della monarchia, segno di una progettualità, a livello centrale, nella sfera militare 2) l’analisi delle implicazioni politiche e fiscali che l’applicazione del nuovo modello difensivo ebbe nel regno di Sicilia.
Manuel Lomas Cortés, Universitat de València, España, “Las Galeras de España en vísperas la Guerra de los Treinta Años”
Tras su participación en la expulsión de los moriscos y las expediciones a Larache y La Mamora, la escuadra de galeras de España entró en una fase de creciente estancamiento. Coincidente en el tiempo con el mandato del príncipe Manuel Filiberto de Saboya como capitán general de la mar, este período se caracterizaría por la agudización de los problemas financieros de la escuadra, derivados de la construcción y dotación de una nueva Galera Real que lastró en exceso las consignaciones ordinarias del resto de embarcaciones hasta asfixiarlas, comprometiendo así su mantenimiento. Esta situación vendría empeorada por la incapacidad de la Corona a la hora de hacer frente a un aumento de la inversión en esta escuadra, que finalmente se vería forzada a la reducción de efectivos y embarcaciones en servicio activo. De este modo la operatividad de las Galeras de España tendería a disminuir en los años anteriores al inicio de la Guerra de los Treinta Años, y tendría un claro indicador en el fracaso de los diferentes intentos de bloqueo del Estrecho de Gibraltar acometidos entre 1617 y 1618, durante el conflicto entre Saboya, Venecia y la Monarquía Hispánica. El desplazamiento del príncipe Filiberto a favor del marqués de Santa Cruz, intentaría paliar esta situación y dotar de un nuevo vigor a la escuadra, objetivo indispensable ante el creciente aumento de las tensiones en el Mediterráneo.
Valentina Cipollone, Università di Sassari, “La squadra di galere nel Regno di Sardegna nel XVII secolo”
Breve ricostruzione del dibattito cinque-seicentesco sulla necessità di dotare l'isola di una squadra di galere per la difesa mobile delle coste sarde da affiancarsi al sistema statico (torri e piazzeforti); sbarco francese ad Oristano e avanzamento delle trattative col principe Doria per la creazione di una squadra di 4 galere da gestirsi con contratto di asiento; messa in opera della Capitana e della Patrona; fallimento dell'asiento e passaggio della squadra di galere all'amministrazione diretta; messa in opera della terza galera, la San Francesco; ricostruzione, attraverso i documenti reperiti presso l'Archivio della Corona d'Aragona, fondo Consejo de Aragon e presso l'Archivio di Stato di Cagliari, fondo Antico Archivio Regio, dei movimenti della squadra di galere nel Mediterraneo e dei gravi problemi di gestione, sostentamento e manutenzione che hanno caratterizzato l'esistenza della squadra fin dai primissimi anni provocando un inarrestabile declino nel corso della seconda metà del XVII secolo.
2B. Strategie di potere e controllo del territorio
Chair: Letizia Pani Ermini, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari
Marco Milanese, Università di Sassari, “Castelli e villaggi nel territorio del Giudicato di Torres: archeologia e storia dell’insediamento signorile e rurale nella Sardegna medievale”
Francesca Carrada, Letizia Pani Ermini, Francesca Romana Stasolla, Gabriella Uccheddu, Edoardo Santini, ISEM – CNR,Cagliari, “Tematismi mediterranei nel castello di Monreale”
Antonio Forci, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Feudi e feudatari in Trexenta Trexenta (Sardegna meridionale) nei primi tempi della dominazione catalano-aragonese”
Antonella Pellettieri, IBAM-CNR, Bari, “Il Regno di Napoli disegnato dai Cavalieri di Malta”
2C. Iberian Studies I
Chair: Ronald E. Surtz, Princeton University, New Jersey
Ronald E. Surtz, “A Woman Learns to Write at Her Peril in Early Fifteenth-Century Valencia”
Why were there not more female writers in medieval Spain? Obviously, being unable to write did not prevent a woman from becoming an author as such, for literary composition was most commonly associated with the practice of dictation to a scribe or to a secretary in the Middle Ages. Nonetheless, as part of a pervasive misogyny, male opposition to women even learning to write may have created a hostile environment for literary composition, if only psychologically. In this paper I will explore a relatively unknown instance of that hostility, an early fifteenth-century poem directed by Jaume Escrivá to a woman who purportedly had asked him how she could learn to write. The poet obliged with a list of the equipment needed to put pen to paper, and his compliance suggests initially that he approved of a woman learning to write. However, the poem s erotic subtext indicates that Escrivá had something other than teaching writing in mind and therefore was, on the contrary, hostile to female literacy, at least as far as writing was concerned.
Amy Aronson-Friedman, Valdosta State University, Georgia, “Poetry, Power, and Persuasion in Fifteenth Century Spain: The Converso Poets of the Cancionero de Baena”
The fifteenth century was a period of great intensity politically as well as artistically. The reigns of Juan II and his son Enrique IV are characterized by feuds between the nobility and the monarchy as well as disaccord and internal rivalries among the nobles which resulted in a general malaise at court. During this period, in the area of Castilian literature, the production of satire and invective was at its height. Much of the poetry composed during this time was political satire and social invective and reflected the social and political disaccord. This paper will examine the poetry of converso poets of the Cancionero de Baena in light of this climate of political and social disaccord.
Isabel de Barros Dias, Universidade Aberta, Lisbon, Portugal, “Ancient Mythological Characters in 13th and 14th Centuries Iberian Foundational Narratives”
The Greek and Roman Classical heroes have always exercised a certain fascination over the minds and the imagination of almost every people in Europe. It is widely known how some mythical figures were connected to the birth of several nations and how the stories that convey these traditions were composed or adapted during the Middle Ages. The most famous of these is the legend of Brutus, descendant of Aeneas and founder of Britain. But there are many other examples not so well known in which this paper aims to concentrate. In fact, in the Iberian Peninsula, several mythical characters that come from the East were used as protagonists in foundational narratives and those stories were absorbed by the local vernacular historiography of the 13th and 14th Centuries. This paper will consider three main historiography works: the Estoria de Espanna, by Alfonso X, the Wise, king of Castile and Leon (composed in the 70 s of the 13th Century); its adaptation in the second redaction of the Portuguese Crónica de 1344 (composed in the 80´s of the 14th Century) and the Livro de Linhagens of count Pedro Afonso (composed in the 2nd quarter of the 14th Century). In these works it will be analyzed: (a) which characters are imported from the Eastern Mediterranean area and used in foundational narratives; (b) in what way do these characters provide ancestry and nobility to peoples, kingdoms, families or cities; and finally (c) in what way can the foundational narratives and its heroes be studied also in terms of the image of the lineage or of the place they are related with.
2D. Shakespearean Identities: Ruptures, Fragments, Reflections II: A Session in Honor of David M. Bergeron
Chair: Susan O. Shapiro, University of Kansas
Richard Raspa, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, “The Play of Communitas in Shakespeare’s 1 & 2 Henry IV”
Anthropology illuminates literary comedy by uncovering social practices that create or rupture order as well as identity, and in doing so evoke laughter. Comedy breaks the hold of social prescription and evokes possibilities for renewal, achieving these social ends in a context of safety. Comedy, as F.M. Cornford reminds us, remains true to it origins in the Comus rite of Greek antiquity; it is a "carrying away of death." British anthropologist Victor Turner's notion that societies are constituted by a dynamic tension between communitas and structure helps understand the comedy of Shakespeare's 1 & 2 Henry IV. These social forms exist simultaneously in ordinary life. Communitas signifies a powerful sense of relatedness, an elemental connection to a community or to a larger force in the universe, like God or cosmic energy. Such a connection transcends social and biological markers of identity-role, gender, race, and status. In this essay, I will use Turner's model of social organization and argue that comedy has the capacity to engender communitas. To enrich Turner's model, I will use David Bergeron's concept of carnival politics as elaborated in his essay on Richard II, with its New Historicist emphasis on subversion, resistance, and disorder. Falstaff is the early modern Lord of communitas at the Boar's-Head Tavern, and his (mis)rule is sovereign in a competing and simultaneous universe set against structure, hierarchy, and power embodied in Henry IV at Westminster Palace.
Gaywyn Moore, University of Kansas, Lawrence, “Henry VIII and the Pope: Jacobean Reminiscings of Court and Continent”
This paper will explore ways in which the queens’ bodies performed in three Jacobean plays about Henry VIII and his court offer corporeal sites of memory that exhume the troublesome material body of queens for their Jacobean audience. For instance, in Shakespeare and Fletcher’s King Henry VIII, Katherine of Aragon has something like an out-of-body experience in the masque interlude that foreshadows her death and proffers her an invitation to reside in heaven. The performance of her death and afterlife as dream or foretelling replaces the performance of her body’s death. Katherine of Aragon's body is at the heart of the king’s niggling conscience—the body first married to Arthur and now tainted with doubts about incest. In Rowley’s When You See Me, You Know Me (a title already invoking the material body), Jane Seymour’s body too becomes a site of agonizing conscience-gazing for the king as he must decide whether to save his queen or his unborn child. Calderón de la Barca’s Schism in England (La Cisma de Inglaterra) offers a decidedly Catholic and anti-reformation representation of queens’ bodies in Henry’s court. These representations, taken together, suggest the conflicting performances of the material body of the queen and the outward manifestation of the immaterial conscience of a king.
David M. Bergeron, University of Kansas, Lawrence, “The Duke of Lennox’s Fragmentary Life in Scotland and England”
In November 1583, a nine-year-old boy, Ludovic Stuart, arrived at the Scottish court of James VI. This boy’s cousin, King James, had summoned him six months after the death of Esmé Stuart, his father. From this moment in 1583 until his death in 1624, Ludovic, who became Duke of Lennox, never returned to France to live. Instead, he remained with King James, an ever-increasing political force and trusted confidante of the royal family, in Scotland and then in England. This paper focuses on what we know of his fragmentary life and the resources for studying it.
2E. La formación de Europa a través de la expansión feudal: el ejemplo del reino de Valencia (siglos XIII-XVI)
Chair: Frederic Aparisi, Universitat de València, España
Ferran Esquilache Martí, Universitat de València, España, “La colonización feudal del reino de Valencia (siglos XIII-XIV)”
Las condiciones de conquista y la aplicación de unas concretas estrategias de colonización del territorio que formó el reino cristiano de Valencia determinaron muchos de los aspectos de la sociedad que se desarrolló dentro de sus límites. En cualquier caso, fueron estrategias compartidas en muchos otros dominios europeos por parte de los colonizadores feudales: la sustitución de la población autóctona por nuevos colonos, la concentración de la población en una red de ciudades, castillos y núcleos de población con funciones urbanas o la extensión de un régimen agrícola característicamente feudal, basado en la renta pagada por pequeñas explotaciones familiares centradas en el cultivo del cereal y la vid. La presente ponencia, por tanto, tratará de exponer como éstas y otras características comunes a la expansión feudal europea pueden ser observadas en el proceso colonizador del reino de Valencia durante el siglo XIII y comienzos del XIV.
Frederic Aparisi, Ivan Martínez Araque, Vicent Royo, Universitat de València, España, “La expansión del sistema feudal en el caso valenciano (siglos XIV-XV)”
A raíz de la colonización e implantación del sistema feudal en el nuevo reino de Valencia, se desarrolló una tupida red de villas-mercados, ya fueran de realengo o de señorío, que se convirtieron en los principales centros de intercambios comarcales, al concentrar el excedente agrario y al aparecer todo un conjunto de actividades manufactureras y de servicios, además de constituirse en la sede de los poderes locales. A lo largo del siglo XIV, la constante inmigración colonial, el auge del sector agrario y de las actividades productivas, contribuyeron a la articulación del mercado regional que tuvo como principal nudo la capital del país, Valencia. Durante la segunda mitad de esa centuria, merced al desarrollo de los factores mencionados, las transformaciones de la economía europea y la intensificación de las redes comerciales hicieron de la ciudad de Valencia un importante puerto secundario en la ruta del Mediterráneo occidental hacia el Atlántico, lo cual provocó a su vez la articulación de nuevos escenarios: el País Valenciano destacaría, pues, como una importante área de exportación de materias primas (la lana en el norte), cultivos especializados y comercializables (como el azúcar y la morera durante el siglo XV) o en el crecimiento de la actividad de los paños de lana (uno de sus destinos destacados fue el reino de Nápoles) o el nacimiento de la sedería valenciana.
Vicent Baydal Sala, Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Barcelona, España, “La formación de un espacio feudal en Occidente: el País Valenciano (siglos XIII-XV)”
La conquista de un territorio musulmán, su colonización cristiana y la formación de un reino feudal nuevo, progresivamente integrado en la sociedad occidental, representa un buen punto de partida a la hora de abordar la reflexión sobre la europeización de buena parte de la ribera norte del Mediterráneo durante los siglos bajomedievales. De hecho, mientras que territorios como Sicilia o Valencia, que fueron conquistados entre los siglos XII y XIII, se incorporaron plenamente a la sociedad europea, otros ocupados durante la misma época, como los estados cruzados de Tierra Santa, perdieron su dominio occidental y nunca fueron europeizados socialmente. La conceptualización de dichos casos dentro de los parámetros de lo que se ha dado en llamar “colonialismo medieval” aporta interesantes consideraciones sobre la cuestión, que tratarán de ser expuestas en la presente ponencia.
2F. Spanish Literature
Chair: Roxana Recio, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska
Roxana Recio, “Traducción y siglo XVI: Petrarca y Ariosto”
Jerónimo de Urrea traduce la obra de Ariosto, Orlando furioso, en el siglo XVI, concretamente en 1545. El manuscrito que se ha consultado pertenece a la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid. La traducción ha sido editada en dos ocasiones con cambios sustanciales, la primera en 1988 por Francisco José Alcántara y la segunda, en dos volúmenes, en 2002 por Cesare Segre y Nieves Muñiz. Existe una traducción al catalán hecha por Bonaventura Vallespinosa de 1983. El texto italiano utilizado es de Cesare Segre, publicado en 1976. A partir de unos pasajes del manuscrito, se ha revisado tanto el texto de Alcántara como el que presentan Segre y Muñiz. Se lleva a cabo un análisis de cuestiones como traducción, recreación y adaptación y se compara con la traducción en catalán, que sorprendentemente rompe con la tradición castellana de seguir a Urrea y se centra en el texto base. Lo más destacable es la supresión de capítulos y la mezcla de unos capítulos con otros. Otro ejemplo lo encontramos en la traducción inglesa de John Harrington en 1591. Es curioso que a diferencia de Segre y Muñiz, el texto de Harrington se ha respetado y la edición presenta unas notas muy bien hechas y que se ciñen a la traducción. Harrington es un ejemplo de lo que hablamos de Urrea. A principios del siglo XX, Carl Appel se preguntaba cómo era posible que esto sucediera en la traducción del Triunfo de Amor de Petrarca hecha por Alvar Gómez de Ciudad Real. Haciendo un cotejo con el original italiano, para aclarar el método de traducir de Jerónimo de Urrea, se lleva a cabo una comparación con la traducción de Harrington y con el sistema de traducción de Alvar Gómez de Ciudad Real, que, como se sabe, entre otras libertades también suprime un capítulo de su traducción del Triunfo de Amor de Petrarca. Es curioso que nadie haya puesto en contexto este método de traducción y, sobre todo, que, al enfocarse la cuestión de traducción como algo meramente lingüístico, no se haya visto ya establecida una corriente de traducción nueva y diferente, donde los traductores eran independientes y presentaban sus textos según criterio propio y de acuerdo con su público.
Enrique Rodrigo, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, “Ilustración, economía y relaciones hispano-portuguesas en Viajes por la América meridional de Félix de Azara”
En la obra de Félix de Azara, publicada originalmente en Francia en el año 1803, se recogen las observaciones sobre la geografía, la naturaleza y la sociedad de las provincias de Buenos Aires y de Paraguay que llevó a cabo desde 1781 a 1801. Su obra busca un rigor científico, sobre todo en aquello que se refiere a las descripciones geográficas. En el capítulo titulado “De las gentes de color”, Azara da cuenta de la distribución de la sociedad en castas. Con referencia al trato que reciben las castas inferiores, a primera vista, esta descripción muestra el lado humanitario de Azara, pues resalta el buen trato que él mismo da a sus esclavos, alguno de los cuales no quiso recibir su libertad sino por la fuerza. Esta actitud se complementa con lo bien que son tratados los esclavos en Paraguay, donde nunca se les somete a tratos violentos, se les viste y alimenta bien, y se les cuida en su vejez. La descripción se complementa con la disposición del Consejo de Indias en que se negaba a devolver a un esclavo a otro país extranjero, citando que “la libertad era un derecho natural sobre el que las convenciones humanas no podían tener fuerza”, y el lamento de que un gobernador de Paraguay la incumpliera a causa de sus buenas relaciones con los portugueses. Por otro lado, la narración de las penalidades a que se ven sometidos los negros libres por parte de las autoridades, así como la consideración de que de la unión de razas distintas salen personas física e intelectualmente superiores a los de una raza acentúan la ausencia de prejuicios europeos en su descripción. No obstante, en los métodos que se deben seguir para mejorar la economía del país es donde el rango inferior de las castas no europeas aparece en su desnudez. La existencia de la esclavitud va relacionada a la necesidad económica. De esta manera, al mismo tiempo que se elogia la actitud de los dueños de esclavos, se resalta que “nadie los necesita tanto como ellos” y que su generosidad con los esclavos redunda en un precio mayor de los jornales y de las manufacturas. En el mismo capítulo en el que tal defensa se hace de la libertad, la descripción supuestamente positiva que se hace de las mulatas refleja el estereotipo del objeto sexual: se muestran frescas de piel, dulces, y poco castas, y proporcionan placeres especiales. Los mulatos muestran todo su lado negativo, pues se dedican al juego de cartas, la borrachera y la trampa, aunque “los hay muy honrados”. Lo mismo ocurre en la actitud que demuestra el autor hacia los indios. Se lamenta en varias ocasiones de que se dejara de ir a la caza de los indios para reducirlos, pues eso causó el declive económico y político del imperio español, y echa la culpa de esta situación a los jesuítas y sus métodos pacíficos. Su actitud humanitaria hacia los indígenas contrasta igualmente con las semejanzas que encuentra entre los indios y los cuadrúpedos. Así pues, las concepciones ilustradas de Félix de Azara hacia la explotación racional de los recursos económicos chocan claramente con sus convicciones humanitarias, y nos muestran cuál es la cadena de prioridades que figura en su ideología. Las castas inferiores seguían siéndolo a la hora de contemplar las necesidades de la sociedad para el futuro.
Mukadder Yaycioglu, University of Ankara, Turkey, “Cervantes / Monstruo del Mediterráneo, la gran sultana y el Otomano español”
Cervantes fue quien en la literatura tan bellamente trazó los límites del Mediterráneo - desde el Tajo hasta Pactolo - y salió de ellos por la vía del Atlántico. Mucho antes que Braudel, habló del Viejo Lago como espacio de intercambio cultural, de comercio y de enfrenamientos. De su cultura mestiza fueron los portadores los malos poetas del Viaje del Parnaso, los ani-héroes de la Península íbérica transformados en héroes de la realidad histórica expuesta en La gran sultana doña Catalina de Oviedo. Cervantes ( el pintor o escritor, que todo es uno ) utiliza el engaño a los ojos (trompe l oeil) y/o tropelía, recurso propio de artes plásticas y escénicas, como la pintura y el ilusionismo en la La gran sultana, para construir/desconstruir la obra, codificar/descodificar el sentido y ocultar/revelar la verdadera intención e idenidad [mestiza(mixta)/castiza] de los personajes. Con el mismo propósito recurre al claroscuro, otra técnica pictórica (como reveladora del engaño) y alterna dos planos; en el primero pinta lo cómico/divertido/aparente/falso; en el segundo, retrata lo oscuro/histórico/oculto/verdadero dentro y fuera del harén. Cervantes concentra la atención del lector/espectador en la resistencia/el desamor de Catalina y en la tolerancia/el amor del sultán; oposición de la que nace (por medio del constante paso de un plano al otro) un nuevo personaje al que Cervantes llama otomano español , que parodojicamente no es ni otomano/musulmán ni español (habsburgo)/cristiano, sino otro, castizo (como demostraremos basándonos en pistas/trampas/engaños concretos de la obra) y a través del cual juega con el concepto de cristiano viejo/cristiano nuevo y lo invierte, al parecer, debido al Antiguo Testamento.
2G. Medieval and Early Modern History
Chair: Mark Aloisio, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins
Ilias Giarenis, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece, “Bessarion’s Political Views in a Dramatically Changing Mediterranean World”
In this paper we examine the political views -and visions- composed and expressed by the famous 15th century Byzantine scholar, Cardinal Bessarion. In the framework of such views, Trebizond, Mistra, and -finally- Venice were regarded as possible posts for the establishment of a New Byzantium, and a New Constantinople: quasi Byzantium. Bessarion composed and expressed these views in a dramatically changing Mediterranean World, in which the threat of the Ottoman conquest and the allure of Venetian aesthetics were characteristic and dominant features.
Fotini Karlafti-Mouratidi, Corfu, Greece, “Purchasing, Selling as Well as Loaning in the Ionian Islands during the Venetian Period”
The study will concentrate on status and conditions of purchasing, selling and loaning in the Ionian Islands during the venetian period as these are revealed by the documented agreements. The study is based in the official documents and the books of notaries. Topics as place and time, social and economical conditions of the participants, goods, prices, mode of payments, sums of loans, impositions of sanctions, as well as other general and specific terms of these agreements are to be examined.
Mark Aloisio, “Urban Elites, Central Government, and the Grain Trade in Late Medieval Sicily: Sciacca and its Hinterland”
The restoration of Aragonese government in Sicily by the early fifteenth century led to increased fiscal demands by the state on urban communities. This process was especially evident during the reign of Alfonso V, whose ambitious Mediterranean foreign policy placed a heavy burden on his Sicilian subjects. Previously, urban society in Sicily was loosely organized from an institutional as well as social point of view. By expanding the financial and administrative demands which Sicilian communities had to bear, while leaving it to the same communities to decide how those demands should be met, Alfonso s government aided the consolidation of groups that regulated and restricted access to local resources and institutions. My paper will delineate this process through a study of the intertwined political and economic interests of the civic nobility of Sciacca, one of the main grain emporia in Sicily. The paper will show that by the mid-fifteenth century some of the town s urban elite emerged as stable and reliable interlocutors of the state, consequently securing for themselves important social and political privileges and a tighter hold over local economic activity. This process is amply demonstrated through the dominant role which these lineages gained over the ownership and exploitation of agricultural land and the sale of grain to overseas markets.
Stephanie Fink De Backer, Arizona State University, Tempe, “Re-writing the Discourse of Empire: Women in the Habsburg Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, 1516-1700”
Spanish and Italian women served as vital agents of contact across the Mediterranean, instrumental in extending Habsburg hegemony in Europe, and thus fundamental to the maintenance of a global Habsburg empire. This paper is part of a larger study that incorporates a consideration of gender and cultural exchange in order to expand the scope of inquiry regarding imperial dynamics in the early modern period. For instance, Spanish policy makers grossly underestimated women’s political prowess, yet ultimately relied on their participation in political deal-making to achieve royal objectives. Furthermore, modern diplomatic historians have consistently ignored archival evidence that abundantly demonstrates the vital role that women played in the processes that ensured Spain’s position in Italy, which, in turn, was essential to imperial stability. Ultimately, I suggest that both within and beyond a trans-Mediterranean space, women’s active presence as negotiators of empire requires us to question and revise the traditional political narrative.
2H. Visualizing the Mediterranean: Geographies, Bodies, Soundscapes
Chair: Patricia Keller, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
Patricia Keller, “Remapping in Joan Fontcuberta’s Paisajes sin memoria: Landscape, Photography, and the Technological Unconscious”
Joan Fontcuberta, one of Spain’s most prominent contemporary photographers, explores the intersection between art, science, and reality in his 2005 work, Paisajes sin memoria, or Landscapes Without Memory. In this collection, the artist offers a series of landscape photographs created from computer simulation software designed to create three-dimensional terrains from images with two-dimensional surfaces. By inputting both classic works of 19th and 20th century art as well as images of his own body into the computer program, he generates various “landscapes of landscapes” and “bodyscapes,” all of which result in the output of imaginary places that are as beautiful and seemingly “natural” as they are hauntingly surreal. How are we to read these “landscapes without memory”? Are they landscapes at all? Are they photographs? Are they even works of art? Alternatively, could we think of them as maps that lead us to reconsider new cultural perspectives on space, origins, authorship, and history? If, drawing on the artist’s own words, they scale “mute spaces,” then how might we perhaps also think of them as signifying through the void? That is, how do these simulated landscapes articulate through the imaging and imagining of non-places? With these questions in mind, this paper examines Fontcuberta’s constructed topographies and seeks to situate his project within the larger context of contemporary Spanish photography preoccupied with the question of mediated and/or deconstructed landscapes. As such, I will offer close readings of selected photographs from the Paisajes sin memoria collection in order to analyze how these images of images question the limits of photography by literally and figuratively reconfiguring the conceptual territory of not only landscapes and the tradition of pictorial representation but also of the photographic medium itself, and thus how they create a space that opens up new horizons for the future of visual culture.
Afia Ofori-Mensa, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, “Naughtiness and Nationhood: Immigration, Race, and Miss Italia 1996”
In 1996, Denny Méndez—a naturalized Italian citizen born in the Dominican Republic—became the first black Miss Italia. Méndez’s win, by way of both official judging and call-in votes from Italian television viewers, grew quickly into a controversy that gained international attention. One pageant judge was removed after stating publicly that Méndez should not represent the nation: “Denny is beautiful, and I would happily elect her Miss Universe. ... But what has she got to do with Italy? She has nothing of that typical naughtiness of Sophia Loren. She’s not Mediterranean.” Months earlier, Méndez had placed first runner-up to Miss República Dominicana. The Dominican judges’ decision not to crown her sent a similar message as the Italian judge’s statement: Méndez diasporic body might have been fit to win some pageant, but not this one. This paper examines connections among beauty, belonging, and xenophobia in 1990s Italy, using as a case study Denny Méndez’s Miss Italia win. Utilizing excerpts from international media coverage, this project demonstrates the significance of a young Dominican Italian woman’s triumph, in a Mediterranean nation-state pondering its official attitude toward increasing immigration from Africa and the Caribbean—including that of Dominican female sex workers. Ultimately, the paper concludes that citizenship does not signify belonging; that blackness functions as an enduring specter of difference; and that national beauty pageants are a unique and meaningful site for understanding what happens when contests around race, authenticity, and citizenship are mapped onto the diasporic bodies of immigrant women.
Jennifer Solheim, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, “‘Please Tell Me Who I Am’: Blasting Supertramp and Machine Guns in Wajdi Mouawad’s Incendies”
How is what we see informed by what we hear? In Wajdi Mouawad’s play Incendies (2003), which depicts but never names the Lebanese civil war, an Arab sniper sings along to Supertramp’s “The Logical Song,” using his machine gun as a mock microphone. His performance culminates with the shooting of a French photographer. He then interviews himself in broken English about his aesthetic and moral values. In my presentation, I discuss how Western pop music cues the kinetic image of a stereotypically violent Arab man. Incendies makes no apologies for the sniper, but it’s the first time spectators glimpse a character who is either the long-lost son or the torturer of the play’s silent central character. This scene is thus keyed through an ambivalent combination of humor, fear, and empathy. My presentation demonstrates a mode of reading we might call sounding the text—or listening for sonic cues that interpellate visual images. In my work, sounding the text offers a perspective on Francophone altermondialisme (or alterglobalization, versus anti-globalization). And in the case of Incendies, this leads to another question: how do we grapple with representations of “modernity with a difference” when the point of departure is a violent stereotype?
1:15 – 3:00 Lunch (on your own)
Thursday 3:00 – 5:00
3A. Frontiere mediterranee della Corona di Spagna: l’area iberica peninsulare e il Nord Africa
Chair: Rafael Benítez, Universitat de València, España
Rafael Benítez, “El regreso a tierras cristianas: el problema de la adopción de una identidad por los moriscos retornados del mundo islámico”
Se analizarán algunos casos de moriscos que pasaron desde España al Norte de África y regresaron a tierras cristianas, entre ellos el de Miguel Morcillo, valenciano procesado por la Inquisición de Cerdeña en 1591. Interesa en especial destacar la ambigüedad de su pertenencia, de su identidad, religiosa, cultural, nacional. Los diversos comportamientos estudiados ofrecen respuestas diferentes ante el problema de adoptar o construir una identidad. La actuación inquisitorial ante estos casos permitirá, por otra parte, conocer la postura del Santo Oficio ante este tipo especial de renegado.
Juan Jesús Bravo Caro, Universidad de Málaga, España, “Vivir en la frontera del reino de Granada o el riesgo de la cautividad en el siglo XVI”
El trabajo aborda una de las cuestiones ligadas a la presencia humana en la frontera, entendida ésta como una franja de intercambio que, a diferencia de la actualidad, no explicitaba una línea territorial. La finalización de la ocupación castellana del reino nazarí abrirá distintas fases de ocupación del espacio, interviniendo activamente la Corona para regular el sistema de poblamiento y la propia configuración de las comarcas en atención a las dos comunidades del surpeninsular: mudéjares primero, moriscos después, y cristianos viejos. Las incursiones procedentes de Berbería o del extremo más oriental del mar Mediterráneo, plantearán indudables problemas de seguridad, resueltos siempre a medias por una estructura defensiva carente de recursos suficientes con los que hacer frente a los retos en esta materia. En este sentido, habitar algunas localidades del litoral propiciaba ser en manos de quienes, siguiendo métodos similares a los empleados por los cristianos, realizaban entradas en territorio enemigo para obtener el mejor botín posible, el humano. Analizaremos determinadas normativas emanadas de la Corona y de las instituciones con competencia en defensa y prevención, además de examinar los resultados de algunas de esas incursiones a lo largo de la centuria del quinientos en el reino de Granada.
Juan Francisco Jiménez Alcázar, Universidad de Murcia, España, “El Imperio Corsario: el Mediterráneo Occidental en la Baja Edad Media”
La actividad pirática y corsaria fue muy frecuente en las líneas comerciales existentes en la zona occidental mediterránea, pero el impacto sobre las costas que directamente sufrieron los ataques de cristianos y musulmanes fue muy diverso en los territorios afectados. Diferentes tierras al Norte, al Sur y en pleno Centro de ese sector marino fueron víctimas y bases para piratas, de manera que desde Sicilia hasta las costas musulmanas del Reino de Granada se constituyó un modelo social fronterizo que respondía de manera muy similar a las agresiones de ese auténtico imperio de piratas, donde la ley imperante era el asalto, el robo y el cautiverio. El trabajo expone la respuesta a agresiones esperadas, tanto en el plano social como en el militar y económico.
Giovanni Murgia, Università di Cagliari, “La conquista mancata: Algeri nelle mire del re del Cuco e di Filippo III di Spagna nei primi anni del Seicento”
3B. Guerra e territorio tra Medioevo ed età Moderna
Chair: Maria Eugenia Cadeddu, CNR, Dip. Identità Culturale, Roma
Maria Eugenia Cadeddu, “I partecipanti alla conquista catalano-aragonese del regno di Sardegna e Corsica (1323-26). Note di prosopografia”
Quantificare e individuare coloro che parteciparono alla spedizione catalano-aragonese in Sardegna, negli anni 1323-26, rappresenta un tema di grande rilevanza per intendere la conquista sarda, utile non solo per ricostruire tutte le fasi dell’impresa militare ma anche per valutare il contributo dei sudditi della Corona d’Aragona ai progetti di espansione della monarchia e i benefici promessi a ciascuno. Sul tema esistono diversi documenti, fra cui di particolare rilevanza sono le Carte Reali di Giacomo II d’Aragona, conservate presso l’Archivio della Corona d’Aragona e principale fonte della presente ricerca. Relative a privilegi e compensi concessi a quanti si impegnavano a combattere in Sardegna, esse contengono vari dati sui beneficiati – provenienza, parentele, condizione sociale, professione etc. – e le ragioni che li spingevano a partecipare all’impresa militare, fra le quali la promessa di salvacondotti e il condono dei debiti.
Mario Orsi, CSIC-IMF, Barcelona, “Tropas, sistemas de reclutamiento y formas de hacer la guerra en la Corona de Aragón: el caso de la campaña de Pedro el Cerimonioso en Cerdeña (1354)”
Franco G. R. Campus, Università di Sassari, “Incastellamento, territorio e popolamento nella Sardegna settentrionale: tra storia e modelli insediativi (secc. XII-XIV)”
3C. Renaissance and Early Modern History
Chair: Luca Codignola-Bo, Director, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari
Luca Codignola-Bo, “How Wide Is the Mediterranean Sea? Larger and Larger: An Early Modern Atlanticist’s Perspective”
A short historiographical paper that discusses whether it is true that the Mediterranean Sea, a lieu of human encounters and cultural exchanges in the Middle Ages, in the early modern age became a frontier between two distinct, if not opposite worlds. During the seventeenth century, if not earlier, the Atlantic world replaced the Mediterranean world as the primary location of European, i.e., Western exchange.
Filippo Naitana, Fairfield University, Connecticut, “Between Identity and Liminality: Renaissance Ragusa through Expatriate Eyes”
As elusive as the boundaries of the Mediterranean at times can seem, so is the identity of its cities. That is certainly the case for Renaissance Ragusa (or Dubrovnik), whose walls are like the edges of a magnificent tapestry, so richly woven as to encompass in its narrative the most diverse languages, artistic traditions and ethnicities. This paper will discuss the question of Ragusa s cultural identity, using as a privileged point of observation the works of writers who were both at the center and the margins of its civic narrative: the expatriates. In fact, both the foreigners who lived and worked in the Dalmatian city such as the Tuscan humanist Filippo De Diversis De Quartigianis- , and the Ragusans who came back to their homeland after living abroad for a long period of time such as the merchant, humanist and diplomat Benedetto Cotrugli offer us a portrait of the city fuori dal coro : a perspective all the more precious, suspended as it is between identity and liminality.
Martine Sauret, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota, “La représentation des ‘Indiens’ dans les cartes et atlas des cartographes dieppois: Nicolas Vallard, Nicolas Desliens, Pierre Descelliers, Jean de Rotz”
Les ‘‘Indiens’’ et les figures des autochtones ont connu un grand intérêt au sein de l’Europe et ceci bien sûr dès les premier voyages de Colomb (1492) ou même avant les voyages de Jacques Cartier !534) et ceux de Verrazano. La curiosité française fut stimulée - n’en doutons pas - par les Indiens ramenés en 1503 quand un Brésilien nommé Essomeric arriva sur le bateau de Paulmier de Gonneville, et que d’autres explorateurs revinrent de leurs voyages avec des autochtones des pays visités. Nous voudrions examiner comment bien avant la seconde expédition française de Jacques Cartier de 1536, les Français avaient déjà représenté ces hommes et femmes à travers les dessins, les gravures, portulans et cartes de géographes français - l’école de Dieppe- et notamment d’après les cartes de Nicolas Vallard (1541) Descelliers (1543), Deliens (1566), Jean de Rotz (1542). En effet, la construction de l’image chez ces cartographes ne fait pas seulement la synthèse des voyages de L’Asie et de l’Europe de voyageurs connus (Marco Polo) et portugais de l’époque, elle montre également des détails importants qui retracent les connaissances de l’époque sur les terres et les habitants. La représentation reprend et repose également sur un amalgame de clichés, redites, et notations particulières des explorateurs précédents. Ces images ouvrent alors le débat de représentation sociale, ethnique et sociologique. Le type de l’homme “sauvage,” la marginalité, la “non civilization” ou au contraire la description et les images idylliques de paradis seront des thèmes que nos quatre cartographes dieppois exploreront chacun à leur manière, avec des convictions différentes. Nous nous proposons d’explorer comment ces cartographes dieppois ont chacun réussi à fixer sur leurs atlas différentes notions et particularités des autochtones, créant un “monde nouveau” de ces territoires exploités.
3D. French and Italian Literature: Dialogues and Reflections
Chair: Caroline Jewers, University of Kansas
E. Bruce Hayes, University of Kansas, “Staging Ideology: The Strange Case of Medieval Comic Theater in the French Wars of Religion”
Despite the popular success of comic writers such as François Rabelais and Bonaventure des Périers, attitudes towards laughter in sixteenth-century France were decidedly mixed. Laurent Joubert’s Traité du Ris (1560) warns of certain excesses associated with laughter. Moreover, the tremendous shifts in religious and aesthetic sensibilities during the latter half of the century further increased suspicions regarding humor and laughter. In this paper, I trace the evolution of one specific form of humor in the sixteenth century, namely, comic theater. While the first half of the century saw the continued popularity of medieval forms of comedic theater, a varied corpus of plays referred to in French as le théâtre profane et comique, a number of events in mid-century led to the near disappearance of plays such as farce and sottie. Within the context of heightened religious tensions and partisan violence, the plays were often banned and the confraternities who produced them were barred from putting on plays. At the same time, the aesthetic agenda of the Pléiade insisted on theater based on classical comedy and tragedy, restoring the ancienne dignité that had been usurped by Farces et Moralitez (Défense, II ch. 4). Conrad Badius’s Comédie du pape malade (1561) serves as a fascinating illustration of the radically altered attitudes towards humor and its function in society, reflecting rapidly evolving societal trends. The play, previously overlooked by scholars, provides a wealth of information on the highly circumscribed role of laughter on the eve of the Wars of Religion. The comic content of the play resembles Erasmus’s Risus Sardonicus (sardonic laugh), laughter that is dubious because it is essentially counterfeit. While normal laughter is explosive and unrestrained, sardonic laughter is a forced laugh that is bitter and resentful. In considering the role of humor, an examination of this play poses a central question: at what point is humor and even satire so dominated by invective and polemics that the destructive intent of the comedy removes all forms of laughter except the sardonic laugh? The paratextual material of the play (L auteur au lecteur, Argument, and Prologue ) is particularly instructive in understanding demagogic uses of comedy in the early stages of increased religious conflict. Badius, the son of the famous printer Josse Badius, had a thorough humanistic education, yet his religious zealotry trumps classical aesthetic concerns in this propagandistic play. Structurally, he refuses to follow the classical divisions of scenes and acts. As he explains, “j écrivais pour les simples” and wants to avoid such artifice. His decision is political, and it shows that he is in some way trying to connect his play to the so-called popular medieval theatrical tradition, eschewing classical models in the hopes of reaching a wider audience. There is, however, no question about the limits he places on such an audience. As announced in the Prologue, “Soyez tous bienvenus, si vous n êtes pas Papistes” (v. 8). The play is purely partisan, and because of such ideological and polemical considerations, the very function and utility of laughter is called into question. As he paradoxically instructs his audience, “Riez donc votre soûl, de ce ris sobre et saint” (v. 21).
Crystal Hall, University of Kansas, “Footnotes to Satire as Footsteps of Enlightenment Science: Francesco Stelluti’s Persio sciolto (1623)”
Francesco Stelluti s Italian verse translation of the Satires of Persius (Rome: Mascardi, 1623) reflects more than a seventeenth-century interest in satire by using the footnotes as a vehicle for blatant promotion of the projects of the Accademia dei Lincei and her notable members to the Vatican authorities. For the serious scholar of Persius, Stelluti insisted that his edition be bilingual and he included notes about discrepancies in the Latin manuscript tradition, but the footnotes and their accompanying illustrations indicate that his critical volume was intended for a different reading public. What would otherwise be marginal space in the text is populated by the discoveries of Galileo Galilei, Prince Federico Cesi (founder of the Accademia), Fabio Colonna, and Giovanni Fabri. Even the authors of the prefatory sonnets in praise of Stelluti held no illusions about the true purpose of the text, taking care to laud not only the author, but the way in which Galileo s discoveries brought honor to Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, to whom the work was dedicated, and the man soon to be elected Pope Urban VIII. In a striking rhetorical move, the erudite analysis of satire becomes the pretext for legitimizing intellectual pursuits that were not only commonly seen as running contrary to religious doctrine, but were written in a satirical style that mocked the very institution to which Stelluti dedicated the work.
Caroline Jewers, “Arthur of the Britons (1972-3): Swords, Saxons, and Uneasy Alliances”
Kristina A. Clement, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, “‘L’Omero dei Poveri’: Melchiorre Murenu and the Economic Filth of Bosa”
Dialect poetry experienced a resurgence in the Ottocento as authors were making a return to their dialectical roots across Italy. Italian poets were composing poetry in the dialects of their regions in an attempt to elevate their local mother tongues to a status equal to Florentine. Of all the dialect poetry produced in the Ottocento, scholars most often forget the region of Sardinia; dialect poetry manifested itself throughout Sardinia in the oral tradition, which took the form of poesia a “bolu,” where poets recited improvisational poetry performed for an audience. Poesia a “bolu” competitions produced many exceptionally clever poets, but one of the most renowned was Melchiorre Murenu with his pungent language and biting sarcasm. One of his poems was so insulting that he was rumored to have died for it: “Sas isporchizias de Bosa,” one of Murenu’s better-known poems describes superficially the filth produced by the residents of the Sardinian town of Bosa. A more profound reading, however, reveals a significant social and economic commentary. With this poem, Murenu elevates the nearly forgotten genre of poesia a “bolu” to a higher level by employing social awareness as the impetus for political and economic change in the impoverished and neglected state of Sardinia in the Ottocento.
3E. Ottoman and Mediterranean History
Chair: Margarita Vargas, University at Buffalo, New York
Özlem Sert, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, “Rodosçuk (1546-1553): A Town and Its Inhabitants”
Rodosçuk was a valuable port for the supply of grain to Istanbul. Increasing grain prices in the Mediterranean by the mid Sixteenth Century and Ottoman state policy of directing the Thracian grain trade through Rodosçuk resulted in an increase in the volume of trade in the harbor. Growth and active population movements allowed the present writer to make use of numerous notary acts including clues about the location of individual houses and important buildings. Using a data-base method it became possible to decipher the old face of the town. It was not only the old face of the town but also the relations of its inhabitants that became clearer. I will try to illustrate how life in the port town Rodosçuk went on and how the parts of the town functioned in the middle of the Sixteenth century. Neighborhood relations will play a central role in understanding the class, religion and status based relations among the inhabitants. After illustrating relations with examples from individual inhabitants of each quarter, I will conclude with the outskirts of the town and point to the still obscure sides of Ottoman town life. The findings of this study show that much of the previous assumptions about the Ottoman town need to be re-evaluated.
Gülgün Yilmaz, University of Trakya, Edirne, Turkey, “Role of Interactions to Aesthetical Changings: Westernization in the East, Orientalism in the West”
After Istanbul had been conquered, the Ottoman Empire started to follow developments in Europe. In the 16th Century, conquests and sieges were directed to the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe. The relations between the Ottoman Empire and Europe were strengthened through battles, agreements, exchange of representatives, population transfers, trade, the “devşirme” system and foreign artists working in the Palace. In the 19th Century, Ottomans were westernized while at the same time the West became curious about the East. In the Ottoman cities, western originated or styled goods were preferred, whereas in Europe eastern goods and clothing were widespread. The Sultan III Ahmed period (1703-1730) is recognized as a corner stone in the relation between the Ottoman Empire and Europe. As with the start of the 18th Century, in line with the development of technology, the commercial dependency to the West increased. In addition to that, European countries were chosen as a model for modernization activities implemented as part of government policy. As a consequence, first the institutions were westernized and then the Palace and elites who were in contact with the Palace translated western effects to their daily lives. As new objects, entering houses as a consequence of European effects in the daily lives were artistically investigated in the 19th century, new object forms emerged, new materials were used for traditional forms, factories were established and boundaries of European trade towards Ottoman market developed. This paper provides a general picture of the 18th-19th centuries in European and Ottoman perspectives and investigates the artistic effects of the new objects entering Ottoman life and the acceptance they received.
Daphne Lappa, European University Institute of Florence, “Religious Conversion between Venice and Corfu during the 18th Century”
The present paper examines the phenomenon of religious conversion in and through the Venetian island and port city of Corfu. There, Jewish and Muslims residents and passers-by converted to Christianism, both to the Eastern and the Roman-Catholic rite. At the same time, Corfu served as a religious transit for non-Christians engaged in Mediterranean peregrinations. Merchants, mercenaries or slaves from Istanbul, Algeria, Morocco, Bosnia, passed through the island, contacted the local religious or administrative authorities and proceeded to the Pia Casa de Catecumeni in Venice. These people moved within the limits and structures of two parallel or intersecting, and occasionally rival systems: that sustained by the Catholic charitable institution of the Casa, aiming at the consolidation of both the Christian faith and the Venetian colonial power over its territories; and the one managed by the local Eastern Church in Corfu. Focusing on the documents of the interrogation conducted by the religious authorities both in Corfu and Venice, the paper explores how prospective converts renegotiated their inclusion into the dominant society and culture by pursuing a multitude of tactics. Fundamental to this process was the element of mobility and the experience of travelling by sea or by land, which brought in contact agents of the imagined and real worlds of the East and West .
3F. Studiare il Music Making
Chair: Ignazio Macchiarella, Università di Cagliari
Iris Gayete, Escola Superior de Musica de Catalunya, Barcelona, España, “La polifonia nel canto del Magnificat dei Pirenei Catalani: Ricordando le voci”
In recent time, in Catalan Pyrenees there has been a general re-discovery of the three parts polyphony practices. It was carried out by means of singing dialogues between local singers and researches, pivoted on the teaching practice. This paper will communicate the results of a recent research of the University Autònoma de Barcelona about multipart lines and aesthetic conception (Dr. Jaume Ayats, principal researcher, 2007).
Andrea Congia, Conservatorio di Musica di Cagliari, “O Reina plena de amori: Canti rituali nelle nuove Comunità Ortodosse della Sardegna”
Since about 50 years, in Sardinia some new Christian Orthodox communities have been founded, belonging to different patriarchies and national autocephalous churches. Their liturgical and ritual songs show a very peculiar mixture among different linguistic and musical elements, reflecting the cultural heterogeneity of the communities. This paper will analyze some of these pieces, discussing how the faithful are constructing their collective identity through the musical mixtures.
Marco Lutzu, Conservatorio di Musica di Cagliari, “SU RAAP: Pratiche e rappresentazioni nella Musica Rap in Sardegna”
Since about 15 years, many Sardinian youths are strongly involved in rap music practice. Many of them consider this practice as a tool to express the Sardinian culture values: to underline this aim, they arranged some special features in music sound and texts. This paper will deal with the conceptual basis of rap music practice in Sardinia and its representations in the performers opinions.
Giuseppe Massimo Rizzo, Università di Roma – La Sapienza, “Relazioni sociali e musicali nelle festa del mesopust di Punat (Otok Krk, Croazia)”
In the social life of Kirk Island there are many occasions to play sopela (an oboe like, double-reed instrument, usually played in pairs: the big and the small sopela ). They play to accompany ritual celebrations, collective dances, private gatherings etc.; in summer time the sopela is also played for tourists’ entertainment, within folkloristic groups. According to the context, the instrument s sound changes its meanings: this variability will be analyzed in the very complex performances during Carnival feast.
3G. Medieval History I
Chair: Darlene Abreu-Ferreira, University of Winnipeg, Canada
William S. Monroe, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, “Renovatio redux: A New Look at the Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma”
Since its first publication by Flacius Illyricus in 1556, historians have puzzled over the short work that has become known as the Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma. Edited several times over the centuries, all modern editions have been based on the first one, because the manuscript has not been found. Historians have dated the work variously between 880 and 1016. Arthur Lapôtre made a great advance in our understanding of the work more than one hundred years ago, in giving it the title Libelle impérialiste de Spolète and attributing it to someone attempting to justify the assumption of the imperial title by the dukes of Spoleto. Despite other flights of fancy that carried Lapôtre away, he surely was right about this. More recent research, however, into the decline of the Carolingian empire, and of papal power and prestige, has paid little attention to light that the Libellus might throw on this period. The work gives us an important counter narrative to the more common Carolingian perspective on the late ninth century.
Glenn W. Olsen, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, “Was Sodomy Invented by Peter Damian [c.1007-1072]?”
In a highly influential book, The Invention of Sodomy, Mark Jordan argued that, except for a couple earlier scribal errors, Peter Damian was the first to use the word sodomia. In the Spanish translation of his book, Jordan subsequently acknowledged that the pre-history of Damian’s usage was more complicated than Jordan had thought, but without modifying his claim that Damian was the first to use sodomia as an abstract noun. That is, though the practices that we commonly term sodomitic presumably had an age-old existence, Jordan thought Damian was the first to think theologically of sodomy as an abstract or general category. He was the first to turn from individual acts as “sodomitic sins” to consideration of sodomy and sodomites as abstract categories. This seems to me wrong, and in this paper I propose to show that the earlier usages of sodomia were not scribal mistakes, but part of a long-standing treatment of sodomy. I will then offer an alternative reading of Damian’s thought.
Christopher M. Breyer, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, “Negotiating For Redemption: Donations to the Knights Templar in the Crown of Aragon during the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries”
The Templars were already a significant presence within the Crown of Aragon by the third decade of the twelfth century, and indeed were accepting donations of property at that point. This is illustrated clearly by the attempt of King Alfonso I to cede his kingdom to the Templars, Hospitallers, and the Sepulchre in his will of 1131. Moreover, donations of land and property continued to be an important part of the economic prosperity of the Aragonese Templars until their arrest en masse in the late months of 1307. The intent of this paper is to explore various factors regarding donations of land and property to the Knights Templar military order in the Crown of Aragon. Utilizing parchments from the Military Orders subsection of the Archive of the Crown of Aragon in Barcelona, this paper will explore a number of features regarding donations to the Templars. These include some specific types of property being donated, the status of those who were providing the donations, and the motivations that might lead a person to cede or will property to a military order such as the Knights Templar.
3H. Mediterranean Studies II
Chair: Amikam Nachmani, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
Esra Sarikoyuncu Degerli, Dumlupinar University, Kutahya, Turkey, “The Cyprus Policy of England (1944-1959)”
In 1 April 1955 EOKA terror organization started its sabotage and terrorization activities after self determination right of Cyprus had been refused by political committee held in UN in 17 December 1945. Upon this England invited Turkey and Greece to negotiate about Defense of Eastern Mediterranean and Cyprus Issue (29 August-7 September 1955) but it did not bring forth success. As the discomfort had been increased by EOKA s increasing actions, England accepted the self determination on condition that its military base remained and then partition thesis was brought forward by Harold Macmillan. According to Macmillan s plan that was brought on agenda in 19 June 1958, it was decided that Cyprus would remain as a member of English Nations Union but would have ties with Turkey and Greece. Having brought out Turkey with Greece as equal parties in administration of the island Macmillan s plan received reaction of Cyprus Greeks. As a result of combat of both parties a mainstream policy was aroused for Greek Enosis and Turkish Terrorization. This idea was adopted by England, Greece, Turkey and the USA. Then with the participation of President of England and 3 Foreign Affairs Ministers, Zurich Agreement in 11 February 1958 and London Agreement in 19 February 1959 were signed.
Amikam Nachmani, “Intellectuals and Universities: Jacob Talmon and ‘The Idea of the University’”
A university is a part of society but insists on distance, detachment and autonomy from it; the university is bankrolled by society but demands total freedom in the domains of study, research, expression of opinion and criticism in regard to whatever goes on in the funding society; the universities – “the republic of the universal spirit of the totality of scholars and the totality of universities” – enfold the collective knowledge of numerous generations and collectives, but also foster the right of the individual sage to individual thought, research and excellence; the university clings to the existing heritage of knowledge and that of past generations, cherishing and respecting it, but simultaneously operates a potent apparatus of skepticism, doubt, sieving, elimination, deletion, and refusal to capitulate to whatever exists, is known and accepted, to convention or authority; the university is the home of conservatism, but also of rebellion; the university demands the rights, eminence and status of elite, or even of an admonishing aristocracy, but is there any place for such privileges in an age when the people are sovereign?; the university generates know-how and instruments, but can it rest content therewith, or should it also demand the right to express an opinion and take sides in regard to application of that know-how and use of those instruments (e.g. weapons)? These questions, contradictions and dilemmas preoccupied Prof. Jacob Talmon (1916 – 1980) over forty years ago, in a series of articles in the Israeli daily Ha’aretz (“The Idea of the University”, Ha’aretz 28 SEPT 1966; Ha’aretz, 5 OCT 1966). In his books and articles over the course of some forty years of creative writing, Talmon offered his original, brilliant answers to numerous questions. Jacob Talmon, the university ideal, Judaism, intellectuals, the dynamics at work in these domains and the answers Talmon put forward in his various writings – all these will constitute the focus of this essay. Jacob Talmon expressed notions and ideas which were wise, intelligent and occasionally brilliant. Some he wrote half a century ago. Their relevance to the present is evident. They deserve to be recalled and studied.
Alfonsina Bellio, Università degli Studi della Calabria, Cosenza, “Women Who Cook with Angels in Southern Italy”
The symbolism of food behavior in southern Italy provides an ideal lens through which one can make out, as in filigree, a cultural dynamics that, beginning in the second half of the twentieth century, has followed a rapidly changing systole-and-diastole trend oscillating between tradition and change . The present study is part of an ongoing research on the female dimension as a link with the worlds of surnature ), which I am conducting in the Italian south, and especially in Calabria. In these regions, it is often the women s role to maintain a relationship with the sacred, which naturally falls within the sphere of the preparation and cooking of food and, more in general, of the managing of hearth and home. It is usually women who ensure reciprocity with the spiritual spheres of existence. In Calabria, women used to act as go-betweens and sometimes still do so today - with the spirits of the dead, the saints, or the angels, through ritual and divinatory practices often connected to food.
Filiz Susar, Maltepe University, and Mine Saran, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey, “Social Capital and Social Networks: Settled Europeans in Alanya”
Migration commonly has an explanation as the way which people choose to reach better standards of life and economic situation. But in reality, migration cannot be limited with this simple explanation as it is based on multi-dimensional reasons. The place which is emigrated from, the place which is settled in, people who made the decision and the socio-cultural structure and some other factors influence the migration. After World War II, while the direction of the migration was from south countries to industrialized north countries, has now changed to Mediterranean countries; Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Turkey. Especially, foreigners who have come to Turkey have not only economic reasons but also many others. Antalya and its districts like Alanya, Manavgat and Kaş are very important centers of tourism and are preferable by settled foreigners. Alanya, as we have mentioned before, is a touristic town situated in Mediterranean region of Turkey. It is 135 km. from Antalya. In the last 15-20 years, lots of foreigners have come from European countries to Alanya. Today the population of settled Europeans in Alanya is thought to have reached more than 10 thousand people. Immigrants who have come from Germany, England, Sweden, Holland, etc., have become property owners and have participated in working life, usually real estate and food sectors, here. They have their own cemetery and are about to build a church. The Municipality of Alanya has established an assembly which is called the Assembly of Foreigners to help them with their problems and demands. We have conducted field research in Alanya and have stayed there several times. We made observation and have had interviews with settled Europeans. In this paper, we are going to discuss social capital and social network of them. Additionally, we are going to share some of our research data about why they had chosen to live in this Mediterranean town and what kind of problems they have faced with.
Friday, May 29
Universitá di Cagliari, Via Is Mirrionis, 1
Friday 9:00 – 11:00
4A. Frontiere mediterranee della Corona di Spagna. Il Valenzano e la Sardegna
Chair: Lluís Guia Marín, Universitat de València, España
Juan Francisco Pardo Molero, Universitat de València, España, “Defensas terrestres y navales en el Mediterráneo hispánico (siglos XVI y XVII)”
En este trabajo proponemos un enfoque comparado de los sistemas defensivos de los diferentes territorios de la Monarquía hispánica en el Mediterráneo, tanto continentales como insulares, con especial atención no sólo a sus realidades materiales, sino también a las bases estratégicas, políticas, financieras y culturales.
Maria Grazia Mele, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “I Centelles, la difesa e il commercio del grano nella prima metà del secolo XVI”
La famiglia valenzana dei Centelles, ereditò dai Carròs il feudo di Quirra, il più importante della Sardegna. Seguire alcuni esponenti della famiglia nel proporsi per armare alcune galere per conto dell’imperatore Carlo V, nell’occuparsi della difesa dei territori feudali, nell’ esportare grano dalla Sardegna alla penisola iberica, nel fare da tramite fra la Corona e le istituzioni locali, nel chiedere la carica di ammiraglio di Sardegna, sarà utile per approfondire alcuni aspetti del sistema difensivo sardo e più in generale della realtà di frontiera isolana nella prima metà del XVI secolo.
Daniele Vacca, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Restauro delle torri della Sardegna sud-orientale danneggiate dal sisma del 1616”
Il contenuto di
questo intervento ha lo scopo di mettere in evidenza alcune interessanti
notizie riguardanti le torri edificate nella parte meridionale del Regno di
Sardegna, nel periodo di Filippo II, quindi nel periodo immediatamente
successivo all’istituzione dell’Amministrazione delle Torri, discussa durante
le sedute parlamentari del 1583, e ratificata dal sovrano nel
Lluís Guia Marín, “Defensa, Donativo y Superintendencia de la Caja Militar en la Cerdeña ‘austriaca’”
La exigencias de la defensa de la isla durante la Guerra de Sucesión a la Corona de España motivaron reiteradas prorrogas del Donativo que había sido acordado en el último Parlamento, el Parlamento Montellano de 1699. El mecanismo fue iniciado por Felipe de Borbón pero se asumió por Carlos de Austria y más tarde por los Saboya. Durante el periodo austriaco hubo que salvar algunos obstáculos enojosos como la resistencia del estamento eclesiástico a contribuir arguyendo que la dedicación exclusiva del Donativo a la defensa del reino no estaba contemplada en las condiciones iniciales. Pero la novedad más relevante introducida en la recaudación y gestión del Donativo fue la creación de la Superintendencia de la Caja Militar, considerada por algunos como una antesala de las Intendencias Borbónica y Piamontesa. Superintendencia que no obstante se hizo teóricamente compatible con la pervivencia de los máximos cargos competentes en la gestión del Patrimonio Real: el Procurador Real y el Mestre Racional.
4B. Riflessioni metodologiche e storiografiche sulla Sardegna tra Medioevo ed Età Moderna.
Chair: Luciano Gallinari, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari.
Fabio Pinna, Università di Cagliari, “Testimonianze archeologiche relative ai rapporti tra gli Arabi e la Sardegna nel medioevo”
Luciano Gallinari, “Riflessioni storiografiche sulla Sardegna Bizantina. Periferia dell’Impero?”
Alessandro Soddu, Università di Sassari, “Poteri signorili in Sardegna tra Due e Trecento: i Malaspina”
Il dominio dei Malaspina in Sardegna rappresenta un caso paradigmatico di signoria territoriale. Attraverso la definizione della natura del potere, delle dinamiche della penetrazione nel tessuto politico-istituzionale locale è possibile osservare i caratteri della signoria, che investono gli assetti insediativi, la struttura amministrativa, fiscale e giudiziaria, così come i sistemi di produzione e commercializzazione ed il quadro sociale. Il fenomeno signorile in Sardegna si impone in Sardegna erodendo progressivamente le strutture dei Giudicati, per essere a sua volta esautorato dall’affermazione della Corona d Aragona quale potere unificatore e riorganizzatore del territorio.
Enrico Basso, Università di Torino, “I ‘clan’ aristocratici genovesi e la Sardegna: colonizzazione o integrazione?”
Between the XIIth and the XIVth cc. many great families of the Genoese mercantile aristocracy established strong ties with Sardinia, both economic and social, connecting themselves with the ruling Sardinian aristocracy. In two centuries some families, like the Doria, became part of the Sardinian aristocracy, acting frequently in their own name instead of representing the “official” interests of their Mother City. This way of acting represented a form of “soft” colonization, or it was a consequence of the integration in the local society?. This will be the question that my paper will discuss.
Giovanni Sini, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Gli strumenti informatici di collaborazione applicati nella ricerca e nello studio della Storia: prospettive e mutamenti”
Si analizza la prossima possibile utilizzazione degli strumenti informatici di collaborazione applicati alla ricerca storica. Nello specifico si propone un caso pratico di applicazione della tecnologia informatica finalizzato allo studio collaborativo di fonti legislative prodotte negli Stati della Corona d’Aragona al tempo di Alfonso il Magnanimo. Nell’articolo sono presenti spunti riflessivi relativi la struttura della narratio storica ipermediale e i nuovi percorsi che la Storia, come disciplina, potrà intraprendere grazie all’ausilio della tecnologia informatica.
4C. Lo sviluppo dell'architettura mediterranea di epoca moderna
Chair: Pierina Ferrara, Università degli studi di Roma, Tor Vergata
Federica Natta, DIRAS, Università di Genova, “Cerimonie e apparati effimeri nella Genova del Cinquecento per le entrate illustri di sovrani europei”
The aim of the proposal is to define an accurate itinerary of celebrations during the stay of pertaining to the House of Hapsburg, of France and of Spain in Genoa between 1530 and 1590.
Carmelina Gugliuzzo, University of Messina, “A ‘New’ Capital’ for the Safety of European Christendom: The Building of Valletta”
After the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem left Rhodes in 1522, the island of Malta became Christian Europe’s next line of defence against the Ottoman Turks. The Siege of Malta in 1565 began in May with the arrival of 40,000 Ottoman Turks led by Dragut, the Governor of Tripoli. The critical and decisive moment of the siege came on September 7, 1565, with the arrival of 8,000 additional troops. The arrival of these reinforcements forced the Turks to end the siege the following day. After the conclusion of the Great Siege the situation in Malta (but also for the Catholic Europe) was very serious. For the island the after effects of the siege were immediate. According to a contemporary chronicler, Bosio: “…two thirds of the population has died partly as a result of wounds sustained or illness developed, to the extent that if we were to call in all the males there would not result more than six thousand as being capable of doing any work. After such a moment of deep crises it was necessary to decide a new strategic policy of defence against the external ‘enemies’. Grand Master Jean de la Valette decided to build the new capital - Valletta - after the great disaster. He realized the Knights needed a new city with strong defences in case the Turks returned. Valletta was the first planned city in Western Europe built on a grid system. As was the case in Rhodes, the city was split amongst the tongues. Each tongue constructed its own auberge and adjoining churches. The Knights of Malta continually refortified Valletta until its surrender to the French in 1798. The aim of this paper is to show how during Modern Age a tragic event, as the Great Siege of 1565, brought an unexpected richness to the Knights and to the Maltese people. The building of the new capital required a strong number of local and foreign handiwork. The improvements and the development of the harbour infrastructures rendered this port-city a cosmopolitan reality. In fact in a few decades the fame of this new fascinating city attracted a lot of foreign travellers who contributed to the cultural exchanges among the Euro-Mediterranean societies.
Pierina Ferrara, “Stone City, Men’s City: The Urban Environment of Rome in the XVIII Century”
The objective of this research is to study Roman society in its multicultural identities by analyzing how the city was able to remodel its spaces inevitably influenced by different social and cultural habits. The primary goal is to make a comparative analysis of the Jewish community in Rome within the greater Catholic society. Facing a research on a city - in its historical structural nature and capacity to adapt to diverse cultures and populations that have lived there in the course of time the population and the territory need to be taken into careful consideration as fundamental variables. At the end, it is possible to interpret the complex dynamics of the dialectic relationship that links people and environment.
4D. Cultural Studies: Identity, Subjectivity, and Perception
Chair: Alessandra Guigoni, Associazione Interregionale Partecipazione e Studi in Agribusiness Paesaggio e Ambiente
Luca Giberti, Università di Roma – La Sapienza, “Medea: Identity and Otherness in the Mediterranean Area”
A fundamental modality of exploration of the Mediterranean self/identity is to look at those other figures that are different from the (narrative) self - among which the most important and universal is the woman. A figure with rich potential as a locus for such travel is a woman whose otherness is multifaceted: Medea. Rather than as a simple character, she has to be considered as the sourcefor a variety of dramatic material, creating various irresolvable juxtapositions and contradictions. Medea is arguably the most captivating female figure of all times: ever since the dawn of Western literature, across the centuries she has inspired many artists in all fields. Euripides, Seneca, Corneille, Anouilh, Pasolini, Callas, Fo and Rame, NDiaye, Ba, are among the many who have breathed life into Medea s various incarnations, on stage and on film, from ancient Greek drama to our days. Unlike most mythic figures, whose defining attributes remain constant across the various versions of the myth, the very essence of Medea is continually changing as her story is rethought by the various authors and new versions are created.She illuminates the opposing concepts of self and other, and also suggests the disturbing possibility of otherness within self. We shall investigate the figure of Medea in XX-century theatre and film in the Mediterranean area, reconstructing its ancient meaning in literary tradition, as well as the philosophical, psychological, and cultural questions these portrayals raise.
Elena Moreddu, University of Sassari, Alghero, “L iconismo del centro: il cannibalismo di un esperienza totale”
Intendiamo qui ragionare intorno ai meccanismi ed alle pratiche di costruzione della realtà ed alla loro legittimazione a livello sociale più che intorno alla realtà stessa. Indugiare con il pensiero su tali meccanismi porta, al contempo, a ragionare sul desiderio di voler vivere queste costruzioni quali fossero reali . E nostra intenzione cercare di pervenire ad una lettura di tali meccanismi e pratiche di costruzione del reale così come si esemplificano all interno di eventi di promozione turistica territoriale che utilizzano le valenze storico/identitarie del luogo urbano così identificato quale centro storico. Attraverso una disamina delle peculiari modalità di costruzione della realtà del luogo, rispondente ad un ideale di centro , sarà nostro interesse mostrare quanto tale realtà sia piuttosto la proiezione, in concreto, di una prospettiva eutopica di costruzione spaziale, costrizione uniformante, se non annichilimento, della polivocalità del Luogo.
Antoine Le Blanc, Université du Littoral Cote d’Opale, France, “Il riuso dei monumenti in Italia: strumento ambiguo delle politiche urbane”
The value of urban architectural heritage is very hard to assess, since it combines qualitative and quantitative elements. Generally, the qualitative benefit is supposed to justify a financially deficitary equation. To reestablish a balanced financiary result, one of the most frequent solutions is the re-use of monuments, that is the valorization and modernisation of the monument s use, which is often carried out in a tourist purpose. The will to preserve architectural heritage thus combines a financiary goal with urban renewal and social and cultural development strategies. However, this urban policy tool is often ambiguous, as projects are used as political vitrines and neglect multi-scale impact assessments. By focusing on Italian cases (in particular the small towns of Noto, Assisi, and Gemona), this paper aims to demonstrate that the success of a re-use operation is determined by the quality of the project s insertion in an urban context and by the creation of a new structuring urban polarity.
4E. I Thought I Knew You but You’ve Changed: Personal Histories of Artworks as Told by Their Interpreters
Chair: Mindy Nancarrow, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
Mindy Nancarrow, “Once More, Las Meninas”
What is there to say about this picture that has not been said already? Velazquez's Las Meninas encourages interpretation by its unique structuring of the viewing experience as an encounter: The viewer through the gaze is brought into the sphere of the picture such that the picture is incomplete without the viewer. As in any living encounter, and vital exchange, the work of art becomes the alternate pole in a situation of reciprocal self-recognition. Steinberg says, "If the picture were speaking it would be saying: I see you seeing me--I in you see myself seen--see you seeing yourself being seen." Las Meninas is a mirror of consciousness with multiple reflections, as many as the several different figures confronting the gaze. Beginning with the princess Margarita and continuing around to the painter, followed by Nieto framed in the doorway, and the couple in shadow, and concluding with the dog, I reflect on these multiple opportunities for self-reflection within a personal history of successive encounters with Las Meninas.
Susan L. Rosenstreich, Dowling College, Oakdale, New York, “Object, Subject, Project: Three Ages of Emma Bovary”
Madame Bovary has led a productive life as a troublemaker in the canon of French literature. For many of us, this is the first novel we were assigned to read in its entirety as we took up the serious study of a culture of ideas. Fast forward from learning the facts of Flaubert's trial for obscenity in 1857 to the 1960s, to the deconstructionist strategies that put Flaubert's masterpiece into play as a gendered critique of French society during the Second Empire. Emma the Victim provoked our most heated indignation, and inspired us to deplore her brutal and materialistic handlers. We mourned her silence n the novel, and so, were easily taught to see Emma the Silent as that newly minted critical icon, "the object." From classroom to boardroom, Emma's victimization generated militant upheavals of hierarchies. Post-structural battles on behalf of Emma transformed her into a lively, if not virile, agent provocateur, the challenger of hegemony, the insolent retort to the male gaze. She spoke, all right, and she inscribed her life so deeply onto the stultifying text of the Second Empire that her language tore it to shreds. In place of that narrative, Emma wrote her own, having transformed herself from object into subject. And now, what age has Emma reached? On the post-modern runway of the metanarrative, Emma awaits lift-off for her life beyond the text. To prepare for this journey, Bovary's Self has broken with the trajectory of history. No longer the instrument for the location of French culture, or any culture, for that matter, Emma awaits the immanent airborne moment when she will, finally, invent the language for living beyond rhetoric. She has had a good run as a troublemaker. It is time she grew up, and became a project.
M. Rebecca Leuchak, Roger Williams University, Bristol, Rhode Island, “Directions for Viewing: The Four Iwan Mosque and the Cathedral Labyrinth”
The Mosque and Madrasa of Sultan Hasan from the early Mamluk period in Cairo is a venerable reminder for the important act in the religions of the Book of textual interpretation and amplification handed down from generation to generation, as for example the Talmud and Midrash of the Torah, the Tafsir of the Koran and the Christian tradition of biblical exegesis. I will make analogy of this received body of interpretation, that is passed from generation to generation, with the teaching that art historians engage in about material culture.
Specifically for medieval arts and architecture, the wealth of interpretation that I have received from scholars in the past and the ways in which I contribute my own interpretations. The layers of successive analytical perspective create a rich scholarly tradition to which our students should be introduced. The presentation will conclude with an example, from my most recent visit to the gothic cathedral at Amiens, of a new insight into the structure of the building, gathered from my physical experience of the space, that I have incorporated into my discussions about the church with my students. This revelatory experience has convinced me of the inherent difficulties art historians, in particular, face when wrestling with interpretation of material culture in a campus/classroom context so far removed from physical engagement with the actual work(s) of art.
Commentator: Marilyn Stokstad, University of Kansas, Lawrence
4F. Sobre topografías e identidades nacionales en la vanguardia luso-hispánica / On Topography and National Identities in the Luso-Hispanic Avant-garde
Chair: David Higgs, University of Toronto, Canada
María Soledad Fernández Utrera, University British Columbia, Canada, “Periferias urbanas y amnesias históricas: geonarrativa vanguardista de la historia de España”
De 1923 a 1936, un grupo de intelectuales liderados por Luis Buñuel, y conocido con el paródico nombre de la Noble Orden de Toledo, llevan a cabo una serie de intervenciones performativas espaciales de carácter estético en la ciudad castellana. En estas acciones urbanas, Buñuel, Dalí, Alberti, María Teresa León o Moreno Villa, entre otros, llevan a cabo actos estéticos y culturales de una gran radicalidad y semejantes a los paseos de los dadaístas y surrealistas franceses en París y sus alrededores. ¿Cuál es, sin embargo, el significado ideológico de esas prácticas cuando se considera el contexto cultural, social e histórico español en el que se insertan? ¿Llevan a cabo los vanguardistas españoles con su escritura performativa en el texto urbano una exploración psicoanalítica del pasado de España? De ser así, ¿cómo y desde que perspectiva ideológica se construye la historia y la identidad de España en el mapa cartográfico de Toledo que delinean con sus paseos? ¿Se aleja esta interpretación de la lectura de la historia de España del discurso liberal decimonónico y noventayochista o es fiel a ella?
Ricardo da Silveira Lobo Sternberg, University of Toronto, Canada, “National Literatures: Prescriptive Texts from Machado to Borges”
Brazilian literature has worked along lines sometimes prescribed by writers as diverse as the French Ferdinand Dinis to the Portuguese Almeida Garrett to our own Machado de Assis. This presentation focuses on two prescriptive texts of Machado and ends with the Argentine Borges s The Argentine Writer and Tradition. Both writers, in different centuries and different contexts, try to combat the facile identification of a national literature with the obvious tokens of nationality: Indians for Brazilians, Gauchos for the Argentineans.
Rosa Sarabia, University of Toronto, Canada, “Destrucción y Construcción: La nueva estética en el ensayo crítico de vanguardia”
Entre 1920-1923 el poeta ultraísta Guillermo de Torre redactó un ensayo sobre la pintura del francés Robert Delaunay que no llegó nunca a publicarse y que debió llamarse Destrucción y construcción. La pintura de Robert Delaunay. Esta presentación será un análisis no tanto del contenido de este texto inédito sino del afán de Guillermo de Torre en querer imponer una nueva relación entre el sujeto y su topografía; relación presente en su primer poemario Hélices de 1923, contemporáneo al texto crítico sobre Delaunay. El nuevo espíritu cosmopolita que ve en los cuadros de Delaunay es consonante a la estética que propone en sus propios poemas. De este modo, el poeta español que se identifica con el francés en su arte supone un gesto de acortar la distancia que según el propio de Torre (Literaturas europeas de vanguardias, 1925) tenía España respecto del mundo. El gesto vanguardista de Guillermo de Torre fue no solo europeizar a España sino reemplazar el paisaje castellano y la visión del ethos colectivo nacional (caros a la generación del 98) por la simultaneidad de la función mental en el paisaje urbano y la heterogeneidad cultural.
4G. Medieval History II
Chair: Larry J. Simon, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo
Lindsey Cox, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, “‘If I do not hold these things as truth, then I do not confess myself to be a Jew’: Merchants and Conversion in the Disputation of Ceuta (1179)”
The Disputation of Ceuta is solitary work among the world of twelfth century anti-Jewish polemic. The disputation begins abruptly with little detail on the participants or reason for the debate. There is some evidence to suggest it actually occurred; however, the anonymity of the author makes this difficult to prove with certainty. It is a polemical dialogue between a Genoese merchant and Jew and is concerned with the question of whether or not the Messiah has come. This question concerning the Messiah as the central focus of the disputation is new to twelfth polemic, as is a merchant serving as the protagonist. The following century saw a rise in both the proselytization of the Jews and the increase of anti-Jewish polemic. This paper looks at the Disputation of Ceuta and its role in the development of the idea of the missionary merchant as a precursor to this increase.
Mirko Sardelic, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Art, Zagreb, “Roger of Apulia, Archbishop of Split (1249-1266): Picture of a 13th-century Dalmatian City”
The city of Split in the 13th century is a rather complex community: a Romanised coastal city with Byzantine traditions, nominally under the rule of the Arpad kings, trying to evade the growing influence of the Croatian noblemen in the hinterland. The life of Roger of Apulia, author of Carmen miserabile, one of the most vivid accounts of a barbaric invasion, is relatively well known in European historiography, but only up to the late 1240s. The paper deals with his, rather neglected, office as the archbishop of Split through the three completely distinct, yet events quite significant for the history of Split and the Adriatic, that occurred during his time. The first one is the Adriatic episode of the Mongol invasion of 1241-1242, with an emphasis on its consequences on the Croatian cities. The second one deals with the embellishments of ecclesiastic buildings and the construction of the bell-tower of the Cathedral, the most distinguished one on the eastern Adriatic, an ante litteram piece of renaissance art, supervised by Roger. The final one is the visit of Conrad IV, son of emperor Friedrich II, and the king of Sicily, to Split in 1251 – the background of his visit is yet to be completely clarified.
Florence Fabijanec, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Art, Zagreb, “Circulation of Wine in the Medieval Croatian Adriatic from Production to Export-Import Trade”
In the communities from Istria to eastern Dalmatia wine trade represents one of the most important economic factors. At first, the production of wine in counties of Istra, Kvarner and Dalmatia is considered. Contracts and legislative regulations found in municipal statute laws give insight into cycles and obligations concerning the vineyard works. The second part gives an insight into local wine commerce, especially the one in the taverns. Existing sources and legislative articles on obligations of tavern-keepers provide a vivid picture on consumption of wine in the communities. In the end, the use of customs declarations provides an overview of export of wine from Croatian ports to European markets. It is possible to deduce relatively accurate figures both of exported and imported quantities of wine, especially to/from Italian cities. Inside each segment, a role of each individual shall be given: the one of a serf, owner of a vineyard, tavern-keeper and wine trader – all of this from the notary’s books and privately kept financial records. An introduction to the topic of wine smuggling shall be given, as well as the map of the wine trade routes along the Adriatic Sea.
Larry J. Simon, “Muslims, Jews, and Greeks in Early Fourteenth-Century Mallorca: A Study of Mediterranean Slavery”
4H. The Obscure Side of Mediterranean Historiography: Controversial Issues
Chair: Eyüp Özveren, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Eda Ozel, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, “Pirates of the Mediterranean: Outcasts of Historiography”
The relationship between the state and allegedly illegal peoples is usually demonstrated as a conflict where the state actively suppresses the latter s illegal activities. By contrast, there is a mass of examples of outcasts working at state service with the consent of authority. The case for corsairs in the early modern Mediterranean is not very much different in nature. There are times when a state explicitly or implicitly ignored, suppressed, supported or abused the corsairs, as well as times when the corsairs worked for, damaged, legalized or nullified the state. Thus, the legal status of corsairs in the Mediterranean historiography never constituted a stable image. The Mediterranean was the most brisk ground that formed a link between these states. It was neither a zest for official or unofficial war as an outcome of the chronic hostility between the Muslims and the Christendom, nor a mere economic concern regarding competition, but the institutional nature of this link that determined the legal character of the corsair activities. Hence, within the context of this paper, the lawfulness of corsairs is presented as an outcome of state policy, existing within a broad context of interest in navigation. Moreover, it is suggested that the relation of the state with the Mediterranean itself determined the institutional character of this interest.
Sheila Pelizzon, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, ”The So-Called Decline of the Mediterranean in the Seventeenth Century: Decline for Whom?”
Although usually thought of as a decline period in the economic history of the Mediterranean, the period after 1600 may have actually been economically better for ordinary people peasants, fishermen, cabotage sailors etc. This resulted from firstly, the introduction of new types of American foodstuffs maize, potatoes, tomatoes and cod which offset hunger or food shortages by mitigating the demand for wheat, or other more traditional foodstuffs. Secondarily, the decline of the great traders signaled a rise in the amount of coastal trading being done, which enhanced income. Piracy and banditry, on the other hand, constituted an unconventional means of enhancing income, while avoiding the taxes, rents etc. imposed by the wealthy and powerful. This was accompanied by (less obviously) the ability to elude the agents of various state entities by changing one s identity e.g., from Muslim to Christian. All of this suggests the continuation or enhancement of a rough and-ready self-sufficiency on the part of the above-mentioned groups in the period after the sixteenth century. This paper examines the empirical possibility outlined above and attempts to explain why it has been ignored in the economic history of the region.
Eyüp Özveren and Onur Yildirim, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, “Mediterraneanist Dissentions in Ottoman and Turkish Historiography”
Although the Ottoman Empire was a Mediterranean empire in many ways throughout its history and its successor Turkey remains an Eastern Mediterranean power, the standard histories of both have largely been written with only an occasional lip service to this fact. There are two exceptional periods in the historiography of which the discussion of the formative influence of the Mediterranean on the Ottoman Empire and Turkey comes to the foreground. These are respectively the sixteenth century and part of the twentieth. During the sixteenth century, because the Ottoman Empire pursued a seaborne hegemony by way of warfare, historians have been forced to pay greater attention to the role of the Mediterranean in the course of Ottoman history. We wish here to document this process critically. We will demonstrate what difference exists between simply adding a Mediterranean chapter or two to Ottoman histories and recasting the Ottoman history in light of a Mediterranean perspective that remains yet to be done. During the twentieth century, brief renewed interest in the Mediterranean dimension of a Turkish history has had two pillars. First is to do with the interwar period trends in the quest for hegemony in the Mediterranean that posed a threat to Turkish sovereignty. Second is to do with the quest for an identity popular among a stratum of Turkish intellectuals in order to associate with the civilizations of the land they occupied as well as develop a solidaristic Third Worldist position with the Mediterranean peoples caught in the throes of the bipolarizing Cold War.
Pınar Cakiroglu, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey and Ali Zeren, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, ”The Mediterranean Characteristics of Gramsci’s ‘Southern Question’”
Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937), a native of Sardinia, was one of the founding fathers and one time leader of Italian communism who spent much of his short life imprisoned by the fascist regime of Mussolini. Even so, he remained a prolific writer whose Prison Writings came to light posthumously. Today, Gramsci is taken very seriously for his contributions not only to a more sophisticated version of Marxism but also to political thought and political science as well as unintentionally by way of influence to a contemporary theory of international relations that passes by the qualifier of neo-Gramscian. In Gramsci s numerous writings, the attempts to interpret Italian history in general and unification in the nineteenth century in particular occupy an important place. Gramsci uses the concepts of cultural hegemony, civil society, hegemonic bloc and passive revolution in order to reinterpret the Risorgimento. In addressing the issue of Italian unification, he had to dwell time and again on the question of Italian South. In this paper we wish to explore first how critical this concept is for Gramsci s analytical scheme. We will then evaluate the affinity of this usage with the way it has been used both before (Goethe, Croce) and after (Banfield, Putnam, etc.) Gramsci, in order to elaborate the Mediterranean characteristics of Italian South.
5A. Frontiere mediterranee della Corona di Spagna: i presidi toscani e le isole
Chair: Massimo Dringoli, Università di Pisa
Anne Brogini, Université de Nice, France, “Difendere la cristianità: La fortificazione della frontiera ispano-maltese nei Cinquecento e Seicento”
Dal 1530, anno in cui Carlo Quinto offrì l'isola di Malta all'Ordine dei Cavalieri di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme, l’Ordine fu costretto dall'Imperatore a difendere la frontiera del regno siculo-spagnolo, grazie alla protezione della piccola isola di Malta. Questa difesa della frontiera spagnola si porta avanti partecipando alle spedizioni cristiane contro i musulmani, con la sorveglianza marittima e la guerra di corsa, ma sopratutto con trasformando l’isola di Malta in un “baluardo” dell'impero e di tutta la cristianità. Questa trasformazione rapida è evidente nell'intensa politica di fortificazioni moderne, bastionate, concepite da celebri ingegneri italiani, finanziate essenzialmente dall'Ordine, e nella costruzione di una città militare ideale, nata dalle utopie del Rinascimento, La Valletta, città considerata come inespugnabile, sintesi degli ideali urbanistici e militari dell'epoca moderna, che creò l'ammirazione di numerosi cristiani dell'Europa che andavano in pellegrinaggio a Malta. Costruita dopo il famoso Assedio di Malta, nel 1565, la città nuova di Valletta inizia un periodo di fortificazioni maltesi edificate sotto il tema della crociata e della vittoria dei cristiani sugli Infedeli: le mura urbane, i forti, le torri di avvistamento trasformano allora l'isola nel punto difensivo cristiano più avanzato nel Mediterraneo occidentale che offre protezione a tutti i cristiani che ne possono avere bisogno. Glorificate dai testi e testimoni dell'epoca come inespugnabili, le fortificazioni di Malta hanno reso l'isola dei Cavalieri, dopo 1565, incarnazione materiale, non solamente della frontiera spagnola, ma di tutta la cristianità.
Maria Ghazali, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France, “De Tabarka a la Nueva Tabarca, o de la ofensiva a la defensiva de Espana en le Mediterraneo (siglos XVI y XVIII)”
Del siglo XVI al siglo XVIII, España pasa en el Mediterráneo de un sistema ofensivo a un sistema defensivo. La isla de Tabarka, situada en las costas del norte de Túnez, fue anexionada por los Españoles tras la expedición de Carlos V a Túnez en 1535. Cinco años después, el emperador dio la isla en arrendamiento a sus aliados Lomellinis y Grimaldis, familias de mercaderes genoveses. El emperador se obligó a construir un fuerte y a mantener una guarnición ; en contrapartida, los Genoveses reconocían la soberanía española y entregaban a España el quinto sobre todo el coral que se pescaba en la isla. Así pues, la Tabarka tunecina formaba parte de la linea de presidios establecida por la Corona española en toda la costa del norte de África y en Italia. En el siglo XVIII, España se encuentra ya en una política de defensa de sus costas y de sus islas. Así fue cómo, fortificó y pobló una isla cerca de Alicante con cautivos genoveses, oriundos de la Tabarka tunecina, rescatados a la Regencia de Argel. La meta era doble : se trataba de fortificar una isla para transformarla en defensa contra los ataques del litoral mediterráneo, sobre todo de los corsarios berberiscos ; se trataba también de poblar una isla que se había vuelto un nido de corsarios con colonos cristianos. A través de este ejemplo, se trata pues de analizar el cambio de perspectivas en el sistema de defensa de la Corona española.
Massimo Dringoli, “Porto Longone and Forte Focardo for the Control of the Piombino Channel”
After the peace of Cateau Cambrésis Spain must provide to defend the naval connections between Naples and Genoa. For this reason Spain got the fortified bases of the “Presidios”, to which in 1603 it added the fortress of Longone to control the traffic in the Piombino channel. Don Garcia from Toledo realized there, in two years alone, a fortress of lightly lengthened pentagonal shape. Inspired by the citadel of Anvers by Francesco Paciotti, it was dedicated to St. James. In 1646, nevertheless, it was conquered by the French, but he Spanish conquered it again after four years. The vulnerability showed on that occasion, however, induced the Spanish to make more protected the access to the gulf of Longone by the construction, on the opposite cape of the gulf towards the south, of another fortress with a rampasted quadrangular plan, more smaller than the first, that was named Focardo, in homage to the viceroy of Naples, Don Fernando Gioacchino Faxardo. These two fortresses are to day still well preserved, but they are not open to the public. Fort St. James in Porto Longone (to day Porto Azzurro) is used as prison for many years, and Fort Focardo is still used by the Navy.
Domenico Taddei, Università di Pisa, “Fortified Architectures ‘alla moderna radenza’ in the State of Presidi”
5B. Il Regno di Sardegna nelle fonti catalano-aragonesi dei secoli XIV-XV. Nuove acquisizioni e prospettive di ricerca – I
Chair: Olivetta Schena, Università di Cagliari.
Olivetta Schena, “Le fonti catalano-aragonesi dell’Archivio storico del Comune di Cagliari: tipologie documentarie e prospettive storiografiche”
L'Archivio storico del Comune di Cagliari conserva nella “Sezione Antica” un ricco fondo di documenti, originali e in copia, di epoca catalano-aragonese e spagnola, che abbraccia un arco cronologico di circa quattrocento anni (dal 1358 al 1719): un complesso di oltre 1500 originali e di alcuni registri ad uso amministrativo, scritti su carta e su pergamena, prodotti dalla Cancelleria della Corona d'Aragona ed emanati dai sovrani catalano-aragonesi prima e spagnoli poi. Il nostro intervento vuole evidenziare l’interesse palegrafico-diplomatistico di tale documentazione e la sua importanza per lo studio della storia politica, istituzionale, economica e sociale della città di Cagliari (il Castrum Calleri o Castell de Caller delle nostra documentazione, nella variante latina e catalana) e più in generale del Regno di Sardegna, con particolare attenzione ai secoli XIV-XVI.
Alessandra Cioppi, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Il Repartimiento de Cerdeña. Riflessioni su una fonte della Sardegna del XIV secolo”
Il Compartiment de Sardenya o Repartimiento de Cerdeña, è un registro tributario composto da 160 fogli di scrittura, redatto in “gotica documentaria corsiva cancelleresca catalano-aragonese” e conservato presso l’Archivio della Corona d’Aragona di Barcellona con l’attuale collocazione Varia de Cancilleria, registro 43. Il Compartiment rappresenta la grande e pressoché unica fonte di informazione sul reticolo amministrativo creato dalla Corona d’Aragona nel neo costituito Regno di Sardegna. Come tale esso è simile ai numerosi libri contabili compilati dall’amministrazione catalano-aragonese. L’analisi di questa fonte suggerisce numerosi spunti di riflesssione. Esso offre l’elenco dettagliato dei feudi e delle ville distribuite nel territorio dell’isola sulla base amministrativa delle ex curatorie giudicali, fornendo inoltre notizie interessanti sulla nobiltà che detenne feudi, rendite e benefici nel regno. Un altro aspetto assai interessante che presenta il manoscritto del Compartiment è l’apparato iconografico che lo correda. All’interno del registro sono infatti inserite le illustrazioni di tredici castelli sardi dei quali vengono rendicontate le somme che essi dovevano versare al sovrano, disegni che, seppure stilizzati, costituiscono le più antiche topografie relative a quei luoghi.
Esther Martí Sentañez, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Un’analisi prosopografica e dei rapporti di potere delle oligarchie cittadine nella Corona d’Aragona nel basso Medioevo”
Un’analisi prosopografica delle oligarchie delle città regie della Corona d’Aragona nei secoli XIV-XV diventa di grande rilevanza poiché offre la possibilità di conoscere quali sono i legami familiari e clientelari all’interno del governo urbano della Corona d’Aragona, ma soprattutto perché un’analisi comparativa per ogni regno ci permette di intravedere il grado dei rapporti di questi oligarchi in tutta la Corona. Il nostro interesse si concentra principalmente in uno studio comparativo del Regno di Sardegna con quelli aragonesi della Penisola Iberica, giacché le ultime ricerche condotte in questi territori rappresentano un punto di partenza ideale per sviluppare uno studio comparativo delle elite che controllano il potere nel Basso Medioevo nella Corona d’Aragona. Un ruolo rilevante avrà la rappresentazione municipale nei parlamenti poiché da una parte permette una maggiore conoscenza delle strategie famigliari dell’oligarchia cittadina per il controllo del potere all’interno del municipio e anche all’esterno, e dall’altra diventa uno strumento che fornisce un punto di osservazione dei rapporti tra i diversi bracci e la monarchia.
Sara Chirra, Università di Sassari, “La conquista catalano-aragonese della Sardegna attraverso una cronaca mercedaria settecentesca”
Analisi di una cronaca inedita scritta nel XVII secolo dal barcellonese fra’ Pedro Serra y Postíus dell’Ordine dei Mercenari e attualmente custodita nella Biblioteca Universitaria di Barcellona, relativamente alla conquista catalano-aragonese del Regno di Sardegna, avvenuta nel 1323 sotto la protezione della Vergine Maria.
5C. Mediterranean Studies III
Chair: J. A. Jamil Brownson, United Arab Emirates University
Jae Hoon Choi, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Pusan University of Foreign Studies, Korea, “A Study on the Correlation between Middle Eastern Terrorism and Islamic Radicalism”
The tragedy of September 11, 2001, brought some hard questions about a connection between Middle Eastern Terrorism, Global Terrorism, and the Muslim World. There is a misunderstanding about Islam as a hostile religion, and confusing Muslims as a hater of the West, and Islamic fundamentalism with terrorism. After the fall of the Soviet Union and Saddam Hussein’s call for Jihad against the West in the Gulf war, there was a growing propensity among government officials, political pundits, and the media to see a new “evil empire” replacing the communist threat. When it comes to the definition of terrorism however, the West hold different views from those in the Third World. For example, the west view bloodshed, destruction and hijacking committed by PLO as terrorism while the Third World and most of Muslim countries regard those activities as a part of the Jihad to liberate their people, criticizing the Israel s oppression of the Palestinian people as State terrorism. Against this backdrop, there is a need to establish a clear definition of terrorism and consider related questions so that we can come up with effective measures to put a curb on terrorism. As for the definition of terrorism, academics and analysts diverge in their opinions. No one has been able to produce a universally agreed definition. Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the Western world to describe Islamist groups. It describes the beliefs of traditional Muslims; that they should restrict themselves to literal and conservative interpretations of their sacred texts, the Qur’an and Hadith. Islamic fundamental movement has become a political movement, and some groups turned radical by construing the concept of Jihad in its own way. Some Islamist terrorist groups, notably Hezbollah, Hamas, and Islamic Jihad and Al-Qaeda have employed suicide bombers as a weapon of choice. Their use of suicide bombers occurs in spite of Islamic strictures against suicide and condemnation of suicide bombings by Muslim religious authorities not affiliated with terrorist groups. The terms “Islamic terrorism” and “Islamist terrorism” are used interchangeably, but this use is contentious; many Muslims do not accept that attacks on civilians can ever be justified by Islam. Although “Islamic terrorism” is commonly used by Western media to describe terror activities of a wide variety of groups, “Islamist terrorism” is perhaps a more accurate term that respects the sensitivities of Muslims in that it refers specifically to the ideology of Islamism and not to the entire religion of Islam. Jihad is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root j-h-d (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. The meaning of “Islamic cause” is, of course, open to interpretation. Mainstream Muslims consider jihad to be the most misunderstood aspect of their religion by non-Muslims. The legitimacy of the goals and methods used by the various Islamic movements who adopt the terminology of jihad is often brought into question, usually by moderate and liberal Muslims. The term is frequently mistranslated into English as a “holy war”; however, the concept of jihad encompasses more than just warfare, and a more accurate translation probably would be “holy struggle”, “righteous struggle” or “holy endeavour”. The denotation is of a challenging or difficult, (frequently) opposed effort, made either in accomplishment or resistance. A person who engages in any form of jihad is called a “mujahid”, meaning “striver” or “struggler”. This term is most often used to mean a person who engages in fighting, but, for example a Muslim struggling to memorize the Qur’an is called a mujahid. Jihad, a biased interpretation is sometimes used to describe militant Islamic groups, including Islamist terrorism. After the September 11th attacks, 7.7 London and 3.11 Madrid, whatever the accomplishment of Islamic Fundamental movements as a social and political movement, only its violent activities are known in the West. We must distinguish strictly Islamic Fundamental Movement from Islamic Radicalism and Islamic terrorism. Whatever the aim of Islamic Fundamental movement as a social and political movement, an attack on the innocent people is absolutely not allowed in any case.
Orna Almog, Kingston University, UK, “No Happy Ending: The Palestinian Issue in the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Accord, 1977-79”
In the world of international conflicts, The Israeli- Palestinian conflict is still one of the most acute disputes in the Middle East. In spite of numerous initiatives to bring an end of conflict the issue appears to remain unsolvable. While the Camp David accord brought a successful ending to the Egyptian-Israeli conflict, it failed to deliver actual change in the Palestinian-Israeli relationship. While the negotiations brought the Palestinian issue to the international arena, the two sides adopted intransigent positions leaving no room for compromise. The one successful outcome was the so called the autonomy plan, which promised some hope towards a resolution, but in essence did not change the status quo. This paper will discuss the attempts to solve the problem during the Egyptian-Israeli peace negotiations of 1977-1979. It would analyse the main position, ideology and leadership of the key players- Sadat, Begin and President Carter. It will also examine the reasons behind the failure to achieve a resolution or even any progress, namely the timing of the negotiations and the role of the mediator and his part and position on this issue. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of this failure for the region.
J. A. Jamil Brownson, “Sustainable Development Strategies for Sardinia and the Mediterranean Islands: From the Euro-Med Partnership (Barcelona 1995) to the Union for the Mediterranean (Paris 2008)”
Mediterranean Islands share geopolitical histories and economies beyond their political affiliations with mainland states. After centuries of external colonization and exploitation, Mediterranean islands still retain diversified agriculture, crafts and external trade (Horden & Purcell, 2005) and maintain a strong local ethno-cultural identity to provide relative stability (e.g. Sardinia after unification with Italy). But a combination of elite developments (e.g., Costa Esmeralda), island retirement settlement, and millions of holiday “sun & sand” tourists challenge local cultural stability. European Union membership increased accessibility and funded infrastructure development but external market economies subjected local enterprises to unfair competition, as did EU agricultural export standards. While islands compete for shrinking direct capital investment (FI) this research concludes that a Mediterranean Islands Network (MIN) quasi-independent of mainland control could evolve more sustainable policies and planning for islands as unique bioregions. This model would expand opportunities for collaborative island representation in the European Parliament to fund research specific to island development, and affiliate with UN-SIDS (Small Island Developing States) Network, in which currently only Malta and Cyprus are members. It further proposes that a network of Mediterranean Islands receive a special status within an emerging European-Mediterranean Union likely to succeed the Euro-Med Partnership.
Abdenor Khelifi, Université Paris 8, France, “Partenareat Euroméditerranéen: blocages et perspectives”
La géographie a fait de la Méditerranée une mer intérieure, une sorte de lac, bordé par trois continents, l’Europe, l’Afrique et l’Asie. Cette particularité explique en partie la diversité et la complexité du bassin Méditerranéen, tout à la fois lieu de passage et d échanges intenses, trait d’union entre les pays riverains, et zone de frictions, la Méditerranée a souvent été condamnée, à son corps défendant, à être un espace de tensions de rivalités et de conflits. Le but de ma communication au congrès de The Mediterranean Studies Association est de montrer les entraves du processus du Partenariat Euro- méditerranéen depuis la conférence des 27 et 28 novembre 1995 (considéré comme l’acte fondateur de la Méditerranée du XXI ème siècle) jusqu'à la conférence fondatrice de l’Union pour la Méditerranée : processus de Barcelone en juillet 2008. A travers ce bilan je tente aussi de montrer la nécessaire relance du partenariat Euro- Méditerranéen et ces perspectives.
5D. Film and Cinematography
Chair: Phillip Drummond, New York University in London, UK
Margarita Vargas, University at Buffalo, New York, “The Mediterranean in Mexican Film: Reinstituting Conservative Values”
“Demasiado amor,” Too Much Love (2001), a romantic tragedy directed by Ernesto Rimoch, is based on a 1990 novel by Mexican writer Sara Sefchovich which bears the same title.
Water imagery throughout the film privileges the erotic, yet Rimoch’s use of the Mediterranean Sea as a final backdrop reinstates the familial. The novel is structured by two distinct narrative discourses, the epistolary style and the diary format, which the film negotiates by using a voice-over and the visual image of the character composing letters. As the film dramatizes the split between reality and fantasy, erotic and filial love, the week and the week-end, the ideal and the real, the outside and the inside, as well as between law-abiding citizens and characters who live on the margins of society; viewers wrestle with the film’s ideology: does it aim to disturb social disparities, or to reaffirm social norms? My study will tease out the visual images and narrative elements that contribute to the possibility of ambiguous readings. The film allows for a conservative reading that reinstates a romantic family setting that functions as a microcosm of the nation, as well as a skeptical analysis that challenges a patriarchal hegemonic view of the world.
Thomas Cragin, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pennsylvania, “Memory of a Mediterranean Empire in Recent Italian Films on World War II”
Before and during World War II, Mussolini’s Italy attempted to establish a vast Mediterranean Empire stretching from NE Italy through Yugoslavia to Greece and throughout North Africa. In part motivated by a desire to recreate the important ancient Roman Empire, Mussolini’s empire instead led Italians to destruction. For decades after the war, Italian films largely ignored the ill conceived Imperial ventures of the war era. But since 1990, Italian cinema has given new emphasis to its wartime effort to create an empire in the Mediterranean. The paper will examine Italian memory of that doomed effort, particularly its motives and consequences through recent Italian films. The paper will pay particular attention to Mediterraneo (1991) and El Alamein (2002).
Phillip Drummond, “A Sea of Transformation: Greek Island Fantasies in British and American Cinema”
Drawing upon a variety of approaches to the analysis of forms of ideological representation in film narrative, this paper examines some of the ways in which Greece, and hence Greek-ness , have been represented in a wide range of films. Examples are drawn principally from Britain and America, but also from Italy and Australia. The paper begins with a survey of significant generic templates, looking at representations of the modern Greek diaspora in America in the case of the overwhelming commercial success of My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002) and biopics of Onassis, before going on to reference the war film ancient and modern, and the holiday film. The familial fantasy of Mamma Mia! is the paper s latest cinematic reference point. The paper then concerns itself with the ways in which Greece is represented as a landscape caught in a complex relationship between the past and present. It goes on to examine the role of Greek islands in a variety of films, especially the sea, and human interactions with it. The final part of the paper suggests some of the ways in which these films use Greece as a crucible for intercultural encounters between varying national, regional, and gendered identities.
5E. Art and Culture
Chair: Richard Bonanno, Assumption College, Worcester, Massachusetts
Ingrid Alexander-Skipnes, University of Stavanger, Norway, “Burgundian Galleys, the Perils of Transport and the Banker’s Gain: Memling’s Last Judgment”
Two important Netherlandish altarpieces among the cargo of two Burgundian galleys destined for Florence via the Mediterranean have different yet parallel histories. One of the triptychs, Hans Memling s Last Judgment commissioned in 1467 by Angelo Tani, did not reach its destination while the other, Hugo van der Goes Adoration of the Shepherds, arrived in Florence in 1483 and was installed in the Portinari family chapel. The patrons of these altarpieces, Angelo Tani and Tommaso Portinari, were agents of the Medici bank in Bruges. Portinari succeeded in not only ousting his rival, Angelo Tani, as head of the Medici bank but also gained possession of Tani s prized Memling painting. Before Memling s Last Judgment was on its way to Italy, Portinari had the artist insert his portrait on the figure in the dipping left scale held by St. Michael which tilts towards the blessed. Thus, Portinari placed himself among the virtuous. Interestingly, Portinari did not remove Tani s donor portrait on the exterior of the triptych. In one of the most documented sea piracies of a work of art, the Last Judgment was seized on 27 April 1473 on the Burgundian galley San Matteo by the Hanseatic captain, Paul Benecke, who took the galley and its cargo to Gdansk. From the fourteenth century, much criticism had been levied against the banking profession and its profit-based activity. Through their patronage and charity, Renaissance bankers tried to offset the negative attitudes towards their profession. The criticism centered on charging excessive interest the sin of usury. In his commentary on the pseudo-Aristotelian Economics, which he translated for Cosimo de Medici, Leonardo Bruni wrote that it was better to be known for one s works than the accumulation of excessive wealth. Bruni s text followed the preachings of San Bernardino on the ethics of trade and merchant practices. As Diane Wolfthal has shown, Portinari s commission of the Adoration of the Shepherds reveals the banker s aesthetic interests as well as concern for the state of his soul. I shall argue that the inclusion of Portinari s portrait in Memling s Last Judgment not only proclaims ownership visually but also defends the banking profession as a worthy occupation.
Richard Bonanno, “Michelangelo and Malady”
Michelangelo comes forward as one of the most renowned figures of the Renaissance. His accomplishments in diverse fields make him the embodiment of the term Renaissance Man. How might we consider the idealized depiction of the divinely inspired artist following a recent study diagnosing him as a victim of a developmental disorder? Researchers in Trinity College of Dublin have ascertained that Michelangelo suffered from Asperger’s Syndrome, a neurological disorder named after Viennese physician Hans Asperger whose studies dealing with the disorder date to the mid 20th century. Individuals suffering from Asperger’s Syndrome, essentially a form of autism, exhibit a variety of peculiar traits or symptoms, the most fascinating of which include unusual or seemingly abnormal social skills and, quite often, exceptional abilities in a given field. Michelangelo s contribution to the world of letters consists of a collection of poems and letters that spans nearly seventy years of his lifetime and offer keen insight into not only the artist s many exceptional undertakings but also his intense religious faith and peculiar social skills. I intend to offer commentary and analysis Michelangelo s poetry and letters in the light of both the findings of the Trinity College study and the general topic involving creativity and mental illness.
Anita Herzfeld, University of Kansas, Lawrence, “Contributions to the lunfardo of the Third Millennium”
As Saussure stated, popular speech is the rich language used by ordinary speakers to express themselves. The popular speech of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is in effect a koiné—a regional dialect (or language) that has become the common dialect of a larger area. It has spread from the capital to the interior of the country and has even reached other neighboring nations, such as Uruguay and Paraguay. Additionally, not only is the lunfardo of the Third Millennium made up of the historical lunfardo terminology based on Italian contributions, but at present it is constantly being enriched both by loans brought by immigrant speakers of other languages as well as by expressions used on the radio, the screen, the internet, the computer jargon, the lyrics of the “cumbia villera,” the Argentine rock, and by the sociolect of local “yuppies.” This paper will attempt to sort out some of these recent additions to the lunfardo dialect of Buenos Aires which illustrates the ‘integration’ of social classes through slang.
5F. Across the Religious Divide: Women and Properties in the Wider Mediterranean (ca. 1500-1800)
Chair: Jutta Sperling, Hampshire College, Amherst, Massachusetts
Anna Bellavitis, Université Paris 10 Nanterre, France, “Women, Family, and Property in Sixteenth-Century Venice”
This paper analyzes late medieval Venetian laws governing women s inheritance rights in intestate successions, widows claims to their dowries, and mothers claims to guardianship of their children; in a second step, it analyzes the courts and the notaries application of these laws in the sixteenth century. Based on my analysis of lower- and middle-class testaments, I argue that sixteenth-century legal practice differed favorably from the norms elaborated three centuries earlier, and that Venice preserved its independence vis-à-vis Roman law in key issues affecting women s properties.
Marija Mogorović Crljenko, Juraj Dobrila University, Pula, Croatia, “Women, Marriage and Family in Istrian Communes in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries”
This paper analyses the so-called Istrian marriage pattern and the position of women within it. In Istria, couples acquired property at marriage in ways that were distinct from both the Venetian and Slavic patterns. Istrian marriages were more couple-centered than both their Eastern and Western counterparts. As a result, wives and widows legal powers were relatively strong -- as can be seen, for example, in women s testaments, and from the mother s position as tutor and guardian of her children. My analysis will be based on unpublished sources of the head of Novigrad commune (1492-1600) preserved in the State Archive of Pazin, Croatia, on published Istrian statutes, and the book of the Buzet notary-public Martin Sotoli (1492-1517).
Jutta Sperling, “Marriage, Kinship, Property in Portuguese Testaments (1640-50)”
Based on a sample of 50 testaments from Lisbon, this paper examines forms of testamentary devolution in early modern Portugal. Portuguese succession laws mandated that only one third of a person's property could be freely willed away in the presence of "forced heirs," i.e. surviving children or parents. Therefore, most testaments were written by childless couples, husbands, widows, and single women. While testamentary practices in other European countries, mainly Italy, give insight into how parents distributed their properties to their children in a differentiated manner -- gender being an important distinguishing factor -- and indicate how, and whether, a husband provided for his wife beyond the restitution of her dowry, Portuguese testaments contain mostly information about how persons devolved their properties in the absence of direct heirs. Spouses and children inherited the remainder of an estate automatically, and at even shares.
Mary Ann Fay, Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland, “Counting on Kin: Women and Property in Eighteenth Century Cairo”
My paper examines women s property ownership in eighteenth-century Cairo through an examination of women s waqfiyyat (religious endowment deeds) registered in the main Cairo court of al-Bab al-`Ali. The women include the members of the elite households of Mamluks, the former slaves whose resurgence in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries challenged the Ottoman administration for hegemony in Egypt. In addition to the women, also former slaves, from the elite Mamluk households, women making religious endowments also included those from merchant, clerical and artisanal families as well. The paper examines the types of property women owned and endowed, the nature of their investments in Cairo s commercial economy and their strategies for providing themselves with a secure income during their lifetimes. In addition, the paper argues, the largest property owners among the women were amassing estates with the stated aim of securing the property and its income for their designated heirs in perpetuity. To achieve this goal, they used the mechanism of the family waqf or religious endowment, which was supposed to fund pious or charitable causes, to benefit themselves and their designated heirs. Thus, women not only had property rights, according to the Qur an and Islamic law, but utilized those rights through the buying and selling of property and the creation of religious endowments. These acts were not random but rather purposeful, in order to achieve financial benefits for themselves and their heirs.
Commentator: Margaret Hunt, Amherst College, Massachusetts
5G. Medieval History III
Chair: Larry J. Simon, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo
Randall Janes, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, “Watermills and Social Power in Post Conquest Valencia”
This paper will discuss aspects of power derived from milling in thirteenth century Valencia. As one of medieval Europe’s most complex technological innovations, the watermill ensured a steady food supply for the masses. Expensive to build and maintain, the watermill generally came under the control of those wealthy enough to afford the initial outlay and subsequent maintenance of the mill. These entrepreneurs wielded considerable authority as proprietors of the technology that turned grain into bread. Jaume the Conqueror’s distribution of existing mills and grants for the construction of new mills provides interesting insight into the resettlement for kingdom of Valencia. I intend to examine notarial documents from the royal registers published in Robert I. Burns’ Diplomatarium in order to characterize the power relationships that developed around milling and milling technology in post conquest Valencia. Watermills constituted a part of the king’s regalian revenues, and fell under his jurisdiction; but they were also subject to local administrative bodies that regulated water usage. This paper will show how those who held the rights to mills fit into a complicated system of administration that highlights the complexity of power relationships, and the diverse forms this form of power took on in medieval Valencia.
Maria Elisa Soldani, Scuola Superiore di Studi Storici di San Marino, “Merchants Trading Abroad, Institutions and Protection Costs in 15th Century Crown of Aragon”
In the Iberian domains of the Crown of Aragon, the origin of foreign merchants consular institutions date back almost to the end of fifteenth Century. In the Late Middle Ages, the lack of consular institutions of foreign nations pursuing administration, police and justice functions stimulated the recourse to alternative solutions. This alternative system had to guarantee protection for the foreign merchants trading abroad and provide the enforcement of property rights. This historical context will provide the framework needed in order to test the economical models proposed to humanities scholars by neo-institutional economic historians. From the 1960s, there has been a very significant debate among American scholars concerning the relation between economics and institutions in history, focused on transaction costs, protection costs and property rights. According to Douglass North, in Pre-Modern European history, institutions were created to reduce uncertainty in social relations and exchanges; this brought a decrease in transaction costs and guaranteed the enforcement of property rights (North 1984). Following the same reasoning, the historian of Venice, Frederic Lane, distinguished two kinds of enterprises: the first, called governments, produce protection; the second produce goods and others services, and pay the governments for protection (Lane 1979). Taking the example of Tuscan merchant-bankers in Barcelona we want to demonstrate how they could guarantee their own protection and enforcement of property rights despite the lack of a consular institution. How was their relation with the Aragonese monarchy? Can we consider the lack of the consulate as a weakness for their activities? This analysis is based upon private and public records found in different historical archives of Barcelona, and confronted to recent literature on the topic.
Gianluca Pagani, Universidad de Sevilla, España, “Génova: Estrategias diplomático-comerciales en el área mediterránea occidental durante el siglo XIII”
La presente propuesta de comunicación tiene como objeto de estudio las estrategias político-diplomáticas y económicas que el comune de Génova elabora y pone en acto en el transcurso del siglo XIII, en particular nuestra atención se centra en el espacio geo-político y geo-económico del Mediterráneo occidental. La oligarquía mercantil y política genovesa se mueve a lo largo de una directrices en este tablero líquido que dibujan un triangulo cuyo vértices son la Sicilia, el Magreb y la Península ibérica. Una acción que se plasma en una política colonial genovesa, o sea en una tupida red de coloniae a lo largo de la ribera mediterránea, que representan los nudos del network comercial de las familias genovesas que parte de las costas del Mar Negro para llegar a las columnas de Heracles. Familias organizadas en consorcios, conestagie representan con las susodichas colonias, el sujeto las primeras y el instrumento las secundas de esta política expansiva, o sea su columna vertebral. Parto entonces de una presentación del estado de la cuestión historiográfica, señalando las aportaciones más destacadas, los enfoques metodológicos. Luego a través del análisis de las fuentes diplomáticas y cronísticas quiero presentar el desarrollo de esta estrategia. Ver se si puede hablar de estrategia, o si esta es solamente un interpretación a posteriori de una historiografía volcada en la búsqueda de una clave de lectura de unos hechos que no fueron otrora programados, planificados. Si las familias actuaron de forma individual movida solamente por sus intereses, o si de sus acciones se benefició también el comune.
5H. Technical Knowledge and Technological Transfer (17th – Early 19th Centuries)
Chair: Ezio Vaccari, Università dell’Insubria, Varese
Grazia Biorci, ISEM – CNR, Genova, “The Technical Lexicon of the Pratica di Fabricare le Scene e Machine ne Teatri di Nicola Sabbattini da Pesaro, Ravenna, 1638”
In 1638 a smart architect from Pesaro, Nicolò Sabbatini, wrote and published in Ravenna the first and complete handbook on stagecraft, light techniques and scenography ever seen before: the Pratica di fabbricare le Scene. In this book all the stage knowledge, including the designing perspective and the construction of the machines to lift or lower heavy stuff for the representation, are illustrated and displayed very clearly. The aim of the author, as declared in the first pages named “Lo stampatore al lettore,” was to collect and transfer for every architect or stage maker, the art techniques and the skills of building and of organizing a stage form the very beginning of finding the adequate site for its setting, to the most complex mechanical devices produced to arouse marvel ad astonishment among the public. The book is completed with ninety figures and drawings to better explain the construction and setting process. In this talk the attention will be focused on the content of the handbook itself: on the way in which the author transfers his - and his coevals - experience and competence on this practice, analyzing in particular the language used and the terminology that has become -with the publication of this book- the elected , or better, the specialized terminology of stagecraft. The first results of the lexicological analysis will be illustrated herein.
Andrea Candela, Università dell’Insubria,Varese, “Environment and History: Mining, Natural Resources and Technical Knowledge in the Alps during the 18th and 19th Centuries”
Several historical studies have emphasized the relevance of alpine and prealpine valleys as places of transit and cultural exchange between Europe and the States of eighteenth century Italy, going beyond the traditional historiographical interpretations. With no exaggeration, it could be argued that the Alps, especially from the 1780s onward, might be considered an area of technological transfer and development, above all with relation to mining activity and management of natural resources. Indeed, at the end of the 18th century, a renewed interest towards the exploitation of mineral deposits, due to a growing request of metals all over the Europe, caused the gradual reopening of some different excavations along the flanks of the Alps and Prealps. It should not be ignore that the rediscovery of many mountain deposits has been included in the scientific and social background of geo-mineralogical tours. This sort of naturalistic sightseeing , related to the territorial studies and the exploitation of natural resources, was often supported by government funding, as we can see in eighteenth century Lombardy, where, sometimes, the Habsburg financed the geological travels with considerable sums of money. In the wake of several measures undertaken by some Italian States in order to increase mining activities and cope with the imminent shortage of firewood along the sides of the Alps, the paper will examine the technological transfer, occurred on European basis, that allowed the introduction, particularly in the Lombardian Prealps, of new technologies of melting and mining cultivation.
Leonard N. Rosenband, Utah State University, Logan, “Taste, Technique, and the Mechanization of Papermaking in Britain and France”
In 1761, the astronomer and technical writer Joseph-Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande observed that paper had become an everyday merchandise. But the purchase of paper in the eighteenth century was no everyday affair. The medium itself was a crucial part of every message, since the firmness and hue of a scolding note or a begging note spoke volumes about rank and the value of a relationship. Even book buyers carefully rubbed the sewn and uncut sheets between their fingers and held them close to the light in search of the proper knit and an elegant luster. At the end of the seventeenth century, English paper was ill-suited for these tests. It was coarse, often brown, and uninspiring. English printers and stationers turned to France, Holland, and the hinterlands of Genoa for useful and appealing reams. My presentation considers the maturation of English papermaking in these exacting circumstances. Above all, the trade s trajectory fell outside the bounds of Peter Mathias s familiar query: Was British industrial development first because it was unique, or unique because it was first? In fact, English papermaking was distinctive in the early industrial era because it was second. English manufacturers gradually overcame this position, in part by emulating the technique of the Continental craft and by opening their mills to skilled Continental hands. In time, the English trade may have matched their competitors productivity, if not always their art and prices. At the outset of the nineteenth century, the intense English efforts to realize the commercial potential of the papermaking machine, a French invention, remained a defensive measure as well as a response to rising demand. This paper is rooted in decades of research in public archives in both France and England. It is also the product of careful scrutiny of the ledgers of numerous mills on both sides of the Channel. Finally, it is the outcome of close inspection of the flawed and the seamless handiwork of skilled paperworkers who dipped their molds into vats of warm, watery pulp three thousand times a day.
Commentator: Carlo Maccagni, Italian Society for the History of Science
1:15 – 3:00 Lunch (on your own)
Friday 3:00 – 5:00
6A. Frontiere interne e permeabilità della frontiera.
Chair: Remedios Ferrero Micó, Universitat de València, España
Remedios Ferrero Micó, “La fiscalidad sobre el trigo sardo y siciliano en la Valencia Bajomedieval y Moderna”
Las relaciones comerciales entre Valencia y las islas de Cerdeña y Sicilia fueron muy intensas desde el inicio de la Baja Edad Media, paralelamente a la conformación de la Corona de Aragón. El trigo consumido en Valencia, alimento básico imprescindible en la dieta mediterránea, procedía mayoritariamente de estos dos reinos. Paradójicamente la venta del mismo en el Almudín de Valencia, aunque se vendía a un precio tasado políticamente por debajo de su costo real, estaba gravado con diversos impuestos municipales.
Gianfranco Tore, Università di Cagliari, “Traffici e commerci nella Sardegna modernae commerci nella Sardegna moderna”
Daniel Muñoz Navarro, Universitat de València, España, “Mercaderes italianos y tráfico comercial entre el reino de Valencia e Italia en época moderna”
En esta comunicación pretendemos analizar el intenso tráfico comercial entre el Reino de Valencia y los territorios italianos durante la Edad Moderna y la constante presencia de mercaderes italianos en esta región. A través de las rutas comerciales que surcaban el Mediterráneo Occidental, los agentes mercantiles de origen genoveses, milaneses, napolitano o maltés, entre otros, favorecieron una actividad comercial constante, basada en un tráfico de importación de cereales, tejidos o otros bienes manufacturados hacia la monarquía hispánica, compensado con un comercio de exportación de materias primas como la lana castellana o la seda murciana y valenciana (en bruto o en semilla de gusanos) hacia los territorios italianos. No obstante, este comercio focalizado en las principales ciudades portuarias del reino de Valencia (Alicante, Valencia, Denia…) penetraba hacia el interior peninsular, especialmente hacia Madrid, poniendo de manifiesto la expansión de unas redes comerciales tupidas, con agentes italianos establecidos en las principales plazas comerciales, tanto en la península ibérica (Madrid, Toledo, Valencia, Alicante) como en todo el Mediterráneo Occidental (Marsella, Lion, Génova, Milán, Caller, Nápoles…). El objetivo de esta comunicación es observar a través de la documentación valenciana la evolución de este tráfico comercial a lo largo de la edad moderna, así como las transformaciones en el papel jugado por los mercaderes italianos asentados en el reino de Valencia.
Giuseppe Mele, Università di Sassari, “Mercanti genovesi di Cagliari nella prima metà del Seicento”
I mercanti genovesi residenti a Cagliari e negli altri porti della Sardegna controllano larga parte delle attività di importazione e di esportazione del regno durante la prima metà del XVII secolo . Di particolare rilievo sono gli asientos del grano che consentono loro di monopolizzare l'esportazione del grano per circa un ventennio. La documentazione d'archivio raccolta in Italia e Spagna ha fatto emergere inoltre gli intensi scambi commerciali tra Cagliari e i principali porti del Mediterraneo occidentale, in modo particolare con Livorno e Valencia.
6B. Il Regno di Sardegna nelle fonti catalano-aragonesi dei secoli XIV-XV. Nuove acquisizioni e prospettive di ricerca - II
Chair: Luisa D’Arienzo, Università di Cagliari.
Luisa D’Arienzo, “Le fonti sulla Sardegna medievale nell’Archivio Segreto Vaticano”
Bianca Fadda, Università di Cagliari, “Nuovi documenti sulla presenza dell’Opera di Santa Maria di Pisa in Sardegna in epoca catano-aragonese”
Dallo spoglio sistematico del Fondo denominato Opera del Duomo conservato presso l'Archivio di Stato di Pisa, sono emersi nuovi documenti relativi alla presenza dell'ente pisano in Sardegna nell'arco cronologico compreso tra il 1330 e il 1400; i risultati emersi dal loro studio saranno presentati in occasione del convegno.
Cecilia Tasca, Università di Cagliari, “Produzione documentaria, conservazione archivistica e nuove metodologie di ricerca per lo studio delle comunita’ ebraiche nel basso medioevo. il caso della Sardegna.”
Maria Grazia Scano Naitza, Università di Cagliari, “Il compianto del Duomo di Cagliari”
6C. Turkish Music
6D. Greek Tragedy on the Modern Stage and Screen
Chair: Susan O. Shapiro, Utah State University
Peter W. Rose, Miami University of Ohio, “Antigone in Film: What Kind of Media Faithfulness?”
This paper will consider both the formal properties of film vs. those of Greek drama and the relationship of a work of art to its moment of creation and reception, concentrating primarily on Yiorgos Tzavellas film, Sophocles Antigone (1961), and Gerald Freedman s film version of Anouilh s Antigone (1972). My thesis is that the transformation of a Greek tragedy to the medium of film is bound to fail to the extant that the filmmakers conceive of their task as a faithful representation of an ancient text; the medium of film and the socio-historical context of a film s reception render it radically other than Greek tragedy. Directors who proclaim their faithfulness to ancient tragedy indulge in the intentional fallacy: their success depends on specifically filmic elements (e.g., star system, facial close-ups, on location backdrops) that exceed or transcend the ancient text, and also on the film s ability to speak to a contemporary audience. Only if the ancient material is thoroughly reconceived for its own time can it constitute a work of full artistic integrity. Although Freedman s film of Anouilh s Antigone is far less filmic than Tzavellas faithful rendition of Sophocles, Anouilh s intense response to his historical moment (1943) resonates powerfully for a contemporary audience.
Charles C. Chiasson, University of Texas at Arlington, “Re-Politicizing Euripides: The Empowered Peasantry in Cacoyannis’ Electra (1962)”
In Euripides Electra the heroine s husband, impoverished but descended from nobility, embodies the troubling issue of economic inequality among political equals in democratic Athens. In adapting Electra for the screen, the Greek filmmaker Michael Cacoyannis modernizes the play s political message by making Electra s husband merely one of many peasants who appear on screen as a political collective in an important, evolving relationship with the rulers of Mycenae. Thus the peasants appear first as subservient to the usurpers Aegisthus and Clytemnestra; then as eager supporters of Orestes in the wake of his killing Aegisthus; and finally, in the absence of the Euripidean gods, as harsh judges of Orestes and Electra the matricides. Although there are passing references in Euripides tragedy to the power of popular opinion, Cacoyannis makes his peasants capable of effective action as well as effective speech: at film s end they reject royal rule altogether in an independent exercise of political power. This crucial departure reflects not only Cacoyannis conviction that Euripides rejected the traditional Greek gods, but also his own criticism of contemporary Greek politics and repressive right-wing government policies in the aftermath of World War II.
Susan O. Shapiro, “Pier Paolo Pasolini: A Twentieth Century Tragic Poet”
Pasolini did not make Greek tragedy. He made very striking films about the myths on which tragedy is based. Although this comment by Greek film director Michael Cacoyannis was not intended as a compliment, it nonetheless provides an important insight into the three films based on Greek tragedies that Pier Paolo Pasolini wrote and directed: Oedipus Rex (1967), Medea (1969), and Notes for an African Oresteia (1970). In re-shaping ancient tragedies for the twentieth century, Pasolini did exactly what the Greek tragic poets had done centuries before: he used inherited myth to express timeless themes in a way that was relevant to a contemporary audience. Thus Pasolini s Oedipus Rex interprets Sophocles from a Freudian point of view, and Notes for an African Oresteia is inspired by Marx, Freud and Antonio Gramsci, as well as by Aeschylus. This paper focuses on the Medea and shows how Pasolini re-interprets Euripides play with the help of Carl Jung, Mircea Eliade and Sir James Frazer. Through the key figure of the centaur (a stand-in for the director himself), Pasolini shows us an over-rationalized Western civilization that is both fascinated and repelled by the pre-rational world view it had long ago left behind.
William Freiert, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minnesota, “Gospel at Colonus”
When director Lee Breuer undertook a production of Sophocles Oedipus at Colonus, his intention was to create a completely American version. Knowing that Greek tragedy grew out of Athenian religious experience, Breuer reasoned that the most authentic American liturgical form was gospel music, the fusion of African musical tradition with Christian theology. Breuer attempts to recreate the fundamental experience of the original tragedy by eschewing literalism and re-envisioning the play s insights in a new medium with new techniques. He turns the Greek messenger into a black pastor who tells the story. Sophocles plot is intact, but his text is inspiration rather than script. The narrator-preacher sometimes delivers Oedipus lines; this universalizes Oedipus experience and helps the audience to identify with him. Breuer believed that if you go one step further with cathartic theater you might find pity and terror turning into joy and ecstasy. He finds this joy in Gospel music. The relatively spare Greek chorus becomes a large and buoyant Gospel choir. The songs range from the hauntingly melodic to the ecstatic Lift Him Up , a resurrection piece that turns Oedipus into a Christian paradigm. This dynamic re-conception translates the ancient Greek drama into a powerful American experience.
Commentator: Charles C. Chiasson
6E. Architecture and Space
Chair: Shelley E. Roff, University of Texas at San Antonio
Shelley E. Roff, “Aragonese Port Architecture: The Seed of Successful Maritime Commerce”
The architectural expansion of a city is often the most literal sign of a prosperous economy, and, for cities along the Mediterranean coast in the Middle Ages, the construction of a monumental port signaled its arrival amongst the most competitive and powerful trading centers. The Crown of Aragon s continued political conquests and expansion of trade in the Mediterranean (14th - 15th centuries) made necessary the extensive development of its ports in key cities, such as Barcelona, Valencia, Palma de Mallorca, Perpignan and eventually Naples. The construction of royal shipyards in these ports was not a new phenomenon, but their accompaniment by two new institutional structures, the Llotja de Mar, seat of the Sea Consulate, and the General, the customs house, transformed the operations of maritime commerce. The inspiration for these institutions and their architectural manifestations may have come from an earlier Italian precedent, possibly the 13th century Palazzo del Comune constructed in the port of Genoa. However, the organizational basis of these institutions and the method by which the port structures were financed diverge dramatically. A comparison of the port construction histories of Barcelona and Genoa will demonstrate the effect of differing political structures on the development of these ports and the longevity of their commercial success.
Rogério Paulo Vieira de Almeida, Foundation for Science and Technology, Azeitão, Portugal, “Voids, Squares, and Architecture: Forms and Representation in the Public Space in Early Modern Southern Portugal”
The building of urban squares is clearly both a medieval and a early modern phenomenon but it was from the end of fifteenth onwards, with the growing centralization of the European states, that the relation between municipal authorities and central government seems to have been inscribed in the new architectural forms of the towns and cities public spaces. Previous and contemporaneous appropriation of urban voids coexisted with the need to create spaces specifically designed to host communal activities of commercial as well as of symbolic and juridical significance. But scenarios differed, and the Mediterranean territories were not an exception to this, ranging from heavy local initiative in the Italic peninsula to the persistent invocation of royal power in the Spanish squares, notably the plazas mayores. In this context, Portugal became an eloquent example of such diversity, marked as it was by a pragmatic conception of public affairs and an ambivalent and two-sided relation between municipal and royal power. As such, it is the aim in this paper to understand how the long persistence of urban voids in some Portuguese towns acted as both a possibility for the construction of new squares and a pragmatic alternative to their existence, considering the long-time process of their formation and the issues involved in the different shapes, dimensions, status, and symbolic meanings they ultimately acquired.
Marco Atzori, Università di Sassari, “Architettura extra-ordinaria: l’immagine del potere e l’immagine della città”
A differenza dei legami che si instaurano tra le architetture popolari e le società che le realizzano, le architetture del potere e delle istituzioni sono rappresentazione di una immagine che le classi dominanti devono esporre. Quale rapporto esiste tra l’immagine del potere ed il luogo in cui il potere esercita il proprio controllo? Nella struttura contemporanea della città quali dinamiche instaura la ricerca dell’immagzine in architettura come strumento di affermazione? Come si va riflettendo questo processo nell’attuale periodo di crisi mondiale?
6F. Early Christianity (and Paganism) in the Old World and the New
Chair: Daniel T. Reff, Ohio State University, Columbus
Ufuk Serin, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, “Topografia cristiana e conversione dei templi pagani nell' Asia Minore bizantina: tra ideologia e pragmatismo”
This paper intends to investigate the transformation of Late Antique topography in Asia Minor, along with the gradual establishment of Christianity, and the architectural and ecclesiastical components introduced by the new religion into the urban and rural setting. It also aims to explore the ideological and pragmatic factors in determining the establishment, location, and distribution of these architectural and ecclesiastical elements, in relation to the existing (Roman/Late Roman) buildings and functions. It is the author s intention to focus on the location, distribution, and proliferation of Christian places of worship in both urban and rural context, the factors influencing the selection of the sites for the location of churches, and, in relevant cases, the cathedral and bishopric complex, the origins of urban burials, i.e. the beginning of the practice of burying intra-muros and the use of public spaces for this purpose, as well as several different attitudes and strategies towards pagan structures, particularly temples (such as neutralization, total destruction, transformation into public use, or conversion into a Christian place of worship). Particular emphasis will be given to archaeological evidence from Byzantine Caria and Galatia in western and central Anatolia, respectively, where field research has been carried out by the author. The process of Christianization in both regions (and throughout the entire Asia Minor) is better documented from the fifth and sixth centuries AD onwards.
Alberto Andreoli, University of Ferrara, “Ravenna and the Christian Topography of the Po Delta during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages”
The first signs of crypto-Christianity in the lower plain of Po are found in the suburbs of Ravenna, a bishopric seat from at least the fourth century AD onwards. The logistic, politico-institutional, and socio-economic prerogatives attributed in the course of time to this Late Antique capital were then reflected, in terms of architecture and urbanism, into a coherent infrastructural and defensive organisation and equipment. Ecclesiastical promotion took place along with the politics. The establishment and diffusion of places of worship and philanthropic and sepulchral structures, had thus determined the progressive Christianization of urban and rural spaces. The process of Christianization in the lower Po region is also documented through other minor post-classical evidence datable between the fifth-sixth and the ninth centuries. Among these are: places of worship and graveyards recovered near Comacchio a bishopric seat from the eighth century onwards; the monasteria of the ecclesiastical foundation of Ravenna, in association with the origins of the parish churches of Santa Maria in Padovetere and San Giorgio di Argenta, the graveyard of a village déserte identified between Vaccolino and San Giuseppe; a votive chapel at Pomposa; and the graveyard area of Fondo Tesoro at Voghenza. The first episcopal complex and part of the Late Byzantine/Carolingian civitas of Ferraria were certainly located on the wedge-shaped opening of Volano and Primaro.
Daniel T. Reff, “The Early Church in the New World: The Salinas Missions of New Mexico”
Although separated in time by some 1,500 years, the early Church in Mediterranean Europe and America evidence striking similarities, particularly in the Church's paradoxical embrace and rejection of paganism. The situation in the New World is discussed particularly with reference to the Salinas Missions of New Mexico, where Franciscan missionaries endeavored to convert the "pagan" Pueblo population, all the while retaining the Indians' belief in the "immediate reality of an invisible world." The dynamics of this process are evident in the ruins of the Salinas missions, two of which evidence incorporation of Pueblo religious structures (kivas)!
Chair: Robert G. Collmer, Baylor University, Waco, Texas
Robert G. Collmer, “The Brownings and Their Spanish Connections”
Robert and Elizabeth Browning and their son, Pen, are usually identified with Italy. For example, there they all lived and died. But there are Spanish connections. For example, in a letter to Mary Russell Mitford, who visited Spain, in 1850 EBB expressed the hope, if finances permitted, for her and RB to visit Spain. Several of EBB letters refer to the political situation in Spain. An article in 2006 cites Spanish poetry in “Sonnets from the Portuguese.” RB mentioned Spain in several poems, for instance, “Soliloquyof the Spanish Cloister,” “The Laboratory,” and “The Confessional.” Norman MacColl’s edition of selected plays of Calderon de la Barca in 1888 is dedicated to RB. Mrs. Sutherland Orr, who knew RB and wrote about his life and letters, wrote that in his last decade he spent time studying Spanish and Hebrew: “The Spanish dramatists yielded him a fund of new enjoyment.” Pen’s most famous painting, “The Delivery to the Secular Arm,” depicts the Spanish Inquisition and has a motto from Calderon chosen by RB. Another of his paintings shows a monk reading a “scrofulous French novel” as in “Soliloquy.” Pen’s residence in Antwerp provided information on Spain and religion. The attraction the Brownings possessed for Italy led to some fascination with Spain, but their limited finances and the turbulent politics of Spain in the nineteenth century probably prohibited their visits.
James P. Gilroy, University of Denver, Colorado, “The Hero as Victim in Zola’s Aix-en-Provence Novels”
Zola sets two of the novels in his Rougon-Macquart series, La Fortune des Rougon and La Conquête de Plassans, in Aix-en-Provence, the city of southern France where he spent his childhood. In both works, the central character is a man from the middle-class Mouret branch of the extended family that provides the protagonists for the twenty volumes of Zola’s work. As a result of the repressive policies of the Second Empire regime, Silvère Mouret in the first novel and his older brother François in the latter meet with violent deaths. They are both destroyed, though in different ways, by the political establishment of the time and the social community in which they have lived. In addition, their own relatives play a major role in their undoing. They become the victims, not only of a tyrannical government that does not tolerate dissent, but also of the ruthless greed and political ambition of the upwardly mobile Rougons as well as of the malevolence and envy of the proletarian Macquarts. It is ironic that in these, the only two novels of the whole series in which all the three branches of the family appear together, such a reunion leads to a fratricidal, mutually self-destructive conflict that culminates in the sacrifice of an innocent scapegoat. Both Mourets gain a moral victory, however, in their martyrdom. They succeed in winning the admiration of the author and his readers by their fundamental benevolence and decency, rare qualities in the fictional universe they inhabit.
Antonio Traficante, Concordia University College of Alberta and Grant MacEwan College, Edmonton, Canada, “Text and Contexts: Sea and Sardinia in the Work of D. H. Lawrence”
In recent years D. H. Lawrence s Italian travel literature (Twilight in Italy, 1916; Sea and Sardinia, 1921; and Etruscan Places, 1927;1932) has attracted a good deal of attention from critics. Of these, Sea and Sardinia occupies a most interesting place in the corpus of his work for several reasons. Not only is the book in many ways the most charming and approachable of Lawrence s Italian travel books as Anthony Burgess has claimed in his excellent biography of Lawrence titled Flame Into Being (1985), but also because when we take a closer look at Sea and Sardinia, we notice it was written during a most interesting period in Lawrence s life. Simply put, Lawrence s second Italian travel book is important for us for at least two reasons: first, as it is published during his middle period we are able to witness Lawrence at his martial best, one in which he clearly demonstrates his antipathy with nearly everything and everyone; a distinctive personal trademark to be sure. We can also trace this martial aspect in Sea and Sardinia and in other works published around the same time such as in the novel Aaron s Rod (1922), and in some poems from the collection, Birds, Beasts, and Flowers (1923) among other works. What is especially interesting here is the fact that while readers are able to acknowledge and follow Lawrence s venom in such works, there may be found simultaneously with Lawrence s war-like demeanor, a clear attempt to also establish more of a dialogue with life in his circumcumbient universe. We begin to notice such a movement for instance as early as 1913 in his first major novel, Sons and Lovers, but see this process continue and blossom later in novels such as Women in Love (1916;1920), and surprisingly, Aaron s Rod. My discussion will attempt to account for such a seeming contradiction and offer some reasons for their existence.
Laurent Mignon, Bilkent University, Turkey, “Dissonance and Dissent: Hasan Izzettin Dinamo’s Sonnets”
In Ottoman Turkey, advocates of literary westernisation promoted the sonnet towards the end of the 19th century. Later, nationalist poets who endorsed neo-folk poetry also appropriated this western poetic form. They were interested in the similarities between the Alexandrine and the syllabic meter of the folk tradition. Hence one could argue that they saw the sonnet as a way to fuse western poetry and the Turkish folk tradition, the two sources which would arguably regenerate national literature. However it was Hasan Izzettin Dinamo (1909-1989), a Marxist poet, who became one of Turkey s major practitioner of the sonnet at a time when socialist poets, walking in the footsteps of Nazim Hikmet, argued that it was necessary to leave behind sterile debates on national authenticity and advocated the use of free verse. In my paper I wish to explore Hasan Izzettin Dinamo’s original treatment of the sonnet by focusing in particular on the contrast between his libertarian message and the rigidity of the form which symbolizes an oppressive political system and on his subversion of the pastoral mode.
6H. Iberian Studies II
Chair: Barbara F. Weissberger, University of Minnesota–Twin Cities
Juin Lim, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Pusan University of Foreign Studies, Korea, “The Healing Message in ‘The Road to Soradan’ and ‘Duelo en el paraíso’”
The Battle in the Paradise (Duelo en el paraiso) is the work in which Juan Goytisolo describes as they really are the tragedy of Spanish Civil War in the children’s point of view. The author describes realistically how the war makes human being cruel and miserable surrounding the death of a boy called Abel. The Road to Soradan is made up of 11 omnibus stories about the Korean War in which the alumni came back to Soradan in order to celebrate the 40th graduates’ association recalling their childhood in the days of Korean War. There being no choice but survive in the days of tragedy, they can be free of the oppressed and wounded memory of the past through reconciliation with each other. The two works have common with the fact that they treat of the civil war and that they are described from the children’s point of view denouncing the corrupted human nature through the process of the boys’ imitating the cruelty of the war. In addition, they have the common with the titles, which are related with the road. In this respect, they have a concrete locality such as a dialect and landscape. The road called paradise and Abel have ironical meanming. Abel makes us associate Cain of the Genesis, who is the first fratricidal murder. The murder of Abel symbolizes the fratricidal tragedy of Spanish Civil War and the road called paradise in which Abel was murdered is the ironical expression of earthly hell, where the bloody battle between the same family happens. On the contrary, The Road to Soradan emphasizes the happening in the process of home-coming and also the fact that the war affected every small country such as Soradan, not only turning the beautiful road into ruins but also distorting the simple-hearted children. After the war ended, the alumni gathered to celebrated the graduates’ association in Soradan, going back to the teens in the 50’s passing by 40years. In the graduates’ association, the alumni have been cured of a guilty conscience resulted from distorted memory. Being young at that time, they didn’t understand what the situation really was but they were tortured by the irresistible death or anguish of their friends. In “the Battle in the Paradise” we can also find the message of healing. Estanisla who left alone after the bankruptcy and the death of her husband and two sons is looking forward to reconciliating with her two sons whom she believe revive as a shape of pigeon or flower. In addition, Martin Elosegui wishes for reconciliation with her lover, and Santos, lieutenant of the National Military, expects his erratic son to be back from the war orphan group called “Horror Empire”, and Abel desperately was looking forward to making friends with his executor until he died. The two authors also have the common with each other. When the Spanish Civil War happened, Juan Goytisolo observed her mother die of bombing from the National Military and Yoon, Jeon Gil witnessed his younger brother’s death and he has taken the hunger and poverty resulted from the war his novel’s theme. In addition, they are also interested in the isolated being such as women, immigrants, the lower class and the people who belong to the Third World. They don’t turn away their face from society by criticizing the social contradiction and the vice of the capitalism and modernization which bring about group-selfishness and loss of the human nature. They try to cross the boundary among nations, ethics and classes. Specially, Goytisolo criticizes the occidental egocentrism and dichotomy related with patriarch, interested in the culture of North Africa, including its primitive religion in which the human nature has not yet been corrupted by material civilization. He approaches to them with open-minded and relative point of view. Yoon, who personally went through the hunger and sorrow of parting by ideological conflict, is interested in the petit bourgeois alienated by modernization and industrialization. He emphasizes the recovery of human nature and reconciliation transcending the intolerant ideology and prejudice. In this thesis, I intend to search in the basis of “deterritorialization and Nomadism theory of Deleuze and Guattari”, the cause of tragedy, which turns the boys into a cruel and violent military machine committing the fratricidal murder in the Battle in the Paradise and The road to Soradan. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari concepts of deterritorialization, the body without organs. Their nomadic ethics are based on inclusive disjunctive, which enhances the value of multiplicity, becoming and difference. Their nomadology might be discussed in terms of the ethics of the ecocentric, which is opposed to the thoughts of anthropocentrice, egocentric and biocentric. The ecocentric ethics inherent in deep ecology and ecofeminism releases the unrestrained flow of life and enhances the recovery of non-discriminating relations of humans with all beings, which is discerned in Deleuze and Guattari’s nomadism. Goytisolo and Yoon emphasizes dynamic, changeful, and imaginative identity after the death of Franco Deleuze and Guattari’s rhizomatic idea enables us to get a glimpse of the two author’s dynamic and relative point of view.
Jose Luis Gastanaga, Villanova University, Pennsylvania, “La Breve suma de la vida y hechos de Diego García de Paredes entre la historia y la autobiografía”
Esta obra forma parte de un género característico: las vidas; es decir, la forma principal en que se manifestaba la autobiografía cuando no se distinguía entre éstas y las biografías. España es pródiga en este tipo de escritura. El texto es significativo por dos razones. Porque nos presenta una narración escrita por un hidalgo menor poseído por el orgullo de ser un hombre valeroso; una persona sin una educación esmerada, pero que ha absorbido lecciones sobre el tipo de persona que quiere ser, ya sea de modelos vivos, ficticios o históricos. Una segunda razón hasta ahora descuidada es el hecho de que su texto se publica póstumo junto con la historia de las campañas españolas en Italia. Esta complementariedad entre la vida de un protagonista o testigo, de un lado, y la historia mayor, de otro, no es ninguna novedad. En esto, Paredes tiene acompañantes ilustres, como Flavio Josefo o el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. En mi ensayo busco probar que tanto la escritura como la lectura de esta obra se apoyan en la reelaboración de modelos literarios e históricos que nos muestran un siglo XVI muy conciente de la autobiografía, de sus problemas y sus posibilidades.
Barbara F. Weissberger, “Blindness and anti-Semitism in Lope de Vega’s El niño inocente de La Guardia”
The scholarly debate about the degree to which Lope was a propagandist for the absolutist agenda of the Spanish monarchy has structured recent treatments of his disturbing El niño inocente de La Guardia (1594-97). The play deals with Spain’s most infamous ritual murder case, the alleged kidnapping and crucifixion of the child Cristóbal around 1487 by a group of Jews and converso heretics. Arrested, tried, and condemned by the Inquisition, five of the accused were burned at the stake in a 1491 auto-da-fé. The trial and execution are considered to be instrumental in the Catholic Monarch’s promulgation of the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews only four months later. This paper focuses on the ancient motif of Jewish blindness to argue for the ambivalent anti-Semitism of Lope’s play. Lope’s ultimate source for his dramatization of the La Guardia legend is a brief account by Damián de Vegas (1544). Elsewhere I have written about the motif of Jewish blindness as it appears in Vegas’s brief tale and its subsequent retellings up to Lope’s time. Curiously, Vegas extends Jewish blindness to the little martyr’s own Christian mother, described as “ciega de nación” (blind by birth). The latter term is one that was also applied in late medieval Spain to conversos, considered an alien nation that threatened the pure Christian nation they inhabited. The mother’s blindness is metaphorical as well as literal: she appears unconcerned with the fate of her kidnapped child. Thus, anti-Semitism is conflated with misogyny in this mid-sixteenth century tale. Lope underscores the motif of Jewish and converso blindness and maternal indifference in unusual ways in Niño inocente. Cristóbal’s mother is still represented as blind, but Lope sentimentalizes her, ascribing her blindness to her inconsolably crying over her lost child. The coldness of the original mother figure Lope transfers to none other than Queen Isabel I. In comparison to King Fernando, she is the harsher, more anti-Semitic “parent” of the nation, aggressively advocating the expulsion. Lope further emphasizes Fernando’s relative weakness with respect to the Jewish threat—and Isabel--by making him suffer from eye problems, a modified blindness motif, Lope feminizes Fernando, as anti-Semitic discourse often feminized Jews. I suggest that the blindness pervading society from top to bottom in Lope’s play expresses the author’s ambivalence over converso assimilation into the dominant society and his nostalgia for the perceived clarity of the “Jewish problem” in the age of the Catholic Monarchs.
Candice L. Bosse, Keene State College, New Hampshire, “Consumption and Subjectivity in Contemporary Spain”
While an array of contemporary Spanish women authors have lived distinct personal narratives and pursued dissimilar paths in many spheres, the tie that binds contemporary Spanish women authors remains their negotiation of female subjectivity through the optic of cultures of consumption. Each, in her own manner, portrays the female subject and her becoming; this process is intimately linked to her maneuverings through the consumer realm, selection of particular goods and codes, and subsequent re-appropriation of goods. Indeed the mode in which each author cultivates female subjectivity is distinct; nevertheless, each etches protagonists who negotiate meaning. The dynamic relationships occurring among the protagonists and the consumer realm result in the construction of meaning and transmission of codes, legible to the masses. It goes beyond symbols of images of pleasure. Rather, through consumption each woman navigates a multiplicity of codes in the journey of becoming an active female subject, an agent with potential to enact change and evolve. Due to personal narratives, experiences with global economies, and their notions of female identity, contemporary Spanish authors may have, perhaps, been influenced to examine female subjectivity in conjunction with cultures of consumption within contemporary Spain from various platforms. What remains clear, though, is their dialogue with the international via the inclusion of global brands, locales, markets, cultural trends, and use of the English language in their narrative. The talk will consider why cultures of consumption serve as articulation points for identity and its significance with respect to the current Spanish reality. Indeed, there are interconnections that are grounded in the potential for the re-definition of the female subject in contemporary Spain. Given the current political cycle in combination with evolving social values, economic growth, and the increasing globalization of Spain, a discussion of female subjectivity in conjunction with cultures of consumption serves to destabilize the natural notion of Woman and open up the future possibility for female plurality.
Saturday, May 30
Universitá di Cagliari, Via Is Mirrionis, 1
Saturday 9:00 – 11:00
7A. Rappresentazioni e strutture geografiche e culturali nel Mediterraneo tra Medio Evo e prima Età Moderna
Chair: Isabella Zedda Macciò, Università di Cagliari
Isabella Zedda Macciò, “Le carte nautiche tra rappresentazioni e pratiche dello spazio costiero mediterraneo”
Le origini geografiche e culturali della carta nautica di tipo medioevale - non ancora chiarite in sede di studi circa i tempi, i luoghi e le circostanze della sua prima produzione - rendono questo particolare prodotto della cartografia medioevale - al di là delle sue evidenti funzioni applicative -, uno degli elementi più interessanti per l’indagine geostorica e culturale, soprattutto se se ne considera il vastissimo campo di diffusione e la durata cronologica. Nelle sue caratteristiche strutturali, infatti, la carta nautica si diffonde ovunque nel Mediterraneo durante il corso del XIII secolo, superando ogni barriera di ordine culturale, identitario o ideologico. Nell’intervento verranno sottolineati gli elementi condivisi e, di contro, le peculiarità che di volta in volta, area per area, hanno distinto l’amplissima produzione di carte nautiche, dal basso Medio Evo sino alla più tarda Età Moderna.
Sebastiana Nocco, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “I portolani. Origini, funzioni e fortuna di un particolare genere della letteratura geografica”
I portolani - libri contenenti la descrizione dettagliata delle coste mediterranee e la segnalazione di numerose rotte di starea o di altura, segnalate ricorrendo all’uso delle distanze tra i vari scali e all’orientamento - costituivano uno strumento indispensabile per la navigazione in epoca medioevale, unitamente alla bussola e alle carte nautiche. Come per queste ultime, anche per i portolani si può parlare di opere anonime e collettive, espressione di un comune patrimonio della cultura marinara del Mediterraneo che utilizza quale veicolo di espressione una lingua franca, il sabìr. Attraverso la lettura e l’analisi di alcuni portolani si intende infine evidenziare il ruolo assegnato alla Sardegna, tappa della ruta de las islas, quale emerge da queste particolari fonti.
Simona Arrai, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Contro gli infedeli. Identità delle difese costiere del Mediterraneo”
Molti elementi inducono a ritenere che nel Mediterraneo, nel corso del Medio Evo, l’equilibrio e l’incontro superassero le diversità culturali delle molte società che vi si affacciavano. Incontri facilitati dalla navigazione e dagli scambi commerciali, a loro volta agevolati dal linguaggio comune della carta nautica. Nel corso del Cinquecento, con il costituirsi e il consolidarsi degli Stati mediterranei della Corona di Spagna da un lato e della islamizzazione della fascia costiera nord-africana dall’altro, il Mediterraneo divenne progressivamente teatro di scontri fra Cristianità e Islam. Si aprì un’epoca di guerre politiche e di religione: una decisiva, perlomeno apparente, transizione dall’equilibrio all’insicurezza e alla paura, che si concretizzò rispettivamente nella realizzazione o nel potenziamento di una fitta rete di presidi costieri con funzioni di difesa dall’“infedele”. Un contrasto tra il cattolico e il musulmano, due mondi evidentemente non sconosciuti fra loro e che non sempre furono nemici per antonomasia, ma talvolta semplicemente l’Altro che vive sulla sponda opposta, sull’altra linea di frontiera, con il quale continuare implicitamente e velatamente a dialogare, la cui presenza di prigionieri rende paradossalmente la frontiera più permeabile, e attorno al quale comincia a ruotare la figura dell’ingegnere militare europeo che, nell’apprestamento delle fortificazioni lungo tutte le frontiere, diventa fondamentale durante tutto il XVI secolo, dall’Europa al nord-Africa e, più tardi, persino nell’America latina e nell’Asia occidentale. Si spiega forse in questo modo il risultato di un medesimo linguaggio architettonico per la realizzazione della difesa costiera nella quale, ancora una volta, culture diverse e politicamente in lotta fra loro trovarono un segno di incontro.
Silvia Aru, Università di Trieste, “Il Mediterraneo tra identità e alterità”
L’intervento ruota attorno al nesso di estrema attualità che unisce conformità e alterità all’interno dei processi identitari. Il Mediterraneo, spesso letto in chiave dicotomica come ponte che unisce le diverse sponde o come confine che le separa, offre al riguardo un interessante campo di indagine. Attraverso un’analisi diacronica, si vuole offrire una lettura del contesto entro il quale - superando la logica dicotomica di cui sopra -, possono essere individuati alcuni degli innumerevoli elementi di comunione e di diversità-conflittualità suscettibili, nel loro insieme, di porsi alla base del processo di auspicabile costituzione di un’identità mediterranea “plurale e condivisa”.
7B. Innovazioni e sviluppo economico nel Mezzogiorno d Italia (secc. XVIII–XX): una relazione difficile? Alcuni case-studies
Chair: Maria Stella Rollandi, Università di Genova
Mario Acerra, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II,” “Dall’ autoconsumo alla produzione industriale: l’industria conserviera napoletana tra la fine dell Ottocento e la prima metà del Novecento”
I mutamenti sociali, economici e culturali, che investirono la società Italiana sin dal primo periodo post-unitario, comportarono il sorgere, nella popolazione, di nuovi bisogni ed esigenze. I poderosi flussi emigratori, particolarmente sentiti nel sud del paese, portarono lo spostamento di enormi quantità di persone verso i centri industrializzati del nord Italia, o verso l’estero, creando così i presupposti per un mercato di prodotti alimentari non più solamente freschi e legati al territorio, ma anche sottoposti a trattamenti di conservazione. Sull’onda dell’esempio di Francesco Cirio che, nella seconda metà dell’Ottocento, in Piemonte, aveva dato vita alla prima grande industria conserviera italiana, che pure aveva avuto stabilimenti nel salernitano, e grazie alle concessioni governative connesse alla legge speciale per lo sviluppo della zona industriale di Napoli del 1904, numerosi imprenditori, legati ai più svariati settori dell’economia, decisero di investire, in misura diversa, nel nascente settore conserviero. Questa relazione si propone di seguire i primi anni di vita del settore, affidandosi alle fonti bibliografiche ed ai documenti conservati presso i fondi Contratti di società e Bilanci ed altri contratti di società, presenti presso l’Archivio di stato di Napoli, mettendo in evidenza gli snodi cruciali dello sviluppo che lo portò stabilmente ai primi posti nell’ambito delle esportazioni nazionali.
Paola Avallone, ISSM – CNR, Napoli, “Innovazioni nei servizi creditizi nel Mezzogiorno preunitario”
La grande innovazione dell’epoca medievale in campo economico è sempre stata considerata la banca, che ha permesso, accanto al documento di credito più famoso, la cambiale, di collocare già nell’antichità forme di globalizzazione ante litteram. La banca si è però evoluta, adattandosi alle economie locali laddove si impiantava, e rispondendo alle domande del mercato prima lentamente, poi, a partire dalla rivoluzione commerciale, più velocemente. Agli albori del XIX secolo alcune nazioni come Inghilterra e Francia avevano già sperimentato nuove forme giuridiche come le società per azioni o in accomandita come strumenti per permettere a capitali che altrimenti sarebbero rimasti inoperosi di impiegarsi proficuamente in operazioni bancarie, così come le stesse banche pubbliche avevano affiancato alle mere operazioni di raccolta quelle di sconto delle cambiali. Questo processo innovativo arriva nel Regno di Napoli con la dominazione francese, e si radica con la Restaurazione. L’obiettivo del saggio, basato su documentazione inedita, sarà dunque quello di evidenziare quali furono quelle istituzioni, pubbliche e private, che pur non essendo nuove nel panorama internazionale, rappresentarono una novità per il Mezzogiorno preunitario come strumenti fondamentali per lo sviluppo economico.
Maurizio Lupo, ISSM – CNR, Napoli, “Il progresso tecnico in un area periferica: primi risultati di una ricerca su inventori ed invenzioni nel Mezzogiorno preunitario”
Il Mezzogiorno ottocentesco si colloca ai margini, anche geografici, di quella grande corrente di innovazioni che rivoluzionò l’economia europea durante il secolo XIX. Ma ciò non significa, d’altra parte, che il Paese rinunciasse a seguire, magari in via originale, i processi che altrove stavano velocemente trasformando il modo di produrre e di consumare. Questo saggio, frutto di una ricerca condotta su documentazione spesso inedita, mira perciò a ricostruire il contributo che uomini (e talvolta anche donne) particolarmente creativi introdussero nel sistema produttivo meridionale attraverso le loro invenzioni. Quale fu la reale portata di tali tentativi? Un altro obiettivo della ricerca consiste nel definire il ruolo dello Stato e delle istituzioni periferiche nel favorire, oppure nell’ostacolare, la diffusione delle innovazioni autoctone. Furono messi in campo tutti gli strumenti, legislativi e non, per consentire agli inventori di trarre profitto dai loro ritrovati? La risposta a tutte queste domande potrebbe consentire, infine, di guardare con occhi diversi alla complessa questione di come il Mezzogiorno d’Italia abbia partecipato alla modernizzazione della vita economica e civile che interessò altri luoghi d’Europa durante gli anni centrali dell’Ottocento.
Raffaella Salvemini, ISSM – CNR, Napoli, “Formazione e istruzione degli uomini di mare nel Mezzogiorno pre-unitario”
A partire dalla prima metà del ’700 fino ai giorni nostri, l’istruzione nautica ha contribuito alla formazione tecnica e alla costruzione di una solida cultura marinaresca tra le popolazioni residenti lungo le coste del Mediterraneo. Un popolo di naviganti che ha tratto dalle scuole un valido supporto per il successo e l’affermazione della nostra marineria in tutto il mondo. Questo studio è diretto proprio a ripercorrere le tappe principali di un piano diretto alla formazione dei naviganti, ma anche alla formazione di un capitale umano che il mercato vuole specializzato e formato, da inserire a pieno titolo nei circuiti del commercio via mare. Il progetto di una scuola dedicata al mare, frutto di una gestazione durata all’incirca due secoli, si colloca nel più ampio spazio delle scuole tecniche nate e diffusesi in Europa e in Italia. Il mio compito è quello di tracciare alcune delle linee fondamentali di questo percorso evidenziando quanto è stato fatto e quanto ancora resta da fare per costruire una mappa ragionata dell’istruzione nautica in Italia nel periodo pre-unitario. Mi soffermerò oltre che sulle coordinate spazio-temporali, sulla storiografia, sull’evoluzione del sistema tra sette e ottocento richiamando l’attenzione su alcuni casi del Mezzogiorno pre-unitario.
7C. The Cultures and Folklore of Sardinia and Southern Italy
Chair: Luisa Del Giudice, Los Angeles, California
Luisa Del Giudice, “Sabato Rodia’s Watts Towers between Continents: In Search of Common Ground”
The Watts Towers are the unique work of a unique person. Conceived, built and embellished by an unlettered Italian immigrant, Sabato (Simon or Sam) Rodia (1879-1965), they still defy attempts at definitive artistic or architectural typology. Considered by many a masterpiece of intuitive engineering and building acumen, their creator possessed no formal knowledge of architecture. With extraordinary vision, he placed the Towers in an urban landscape that would prove critical in the development of Los Angeles, a southern California locus of social unrest and rebellion. He named the Towers Nuestro Pueblo¬. Now, half a century later, we agree with Reyner Banham, Mike Davis and others, that Rodia s Watts Towers may stand as the most provocative and powerful monument in Los Angeles. Although now a National Historic Landmark on the National Register of Historic Places, early efforts to fend off demolition, along with current, and at times contested efforts to preserve and enhance the site, are ongoing to this day. And notwithstanding revitalization initiatives, Watts remains socio-economically marginal. Thus, it is significant that Rodia s Towers have been embraced as a symbol of creative individualism and resistance, and as a source of identity and history by its local African-American and Latino communities. If Rodia s monument is unique, his life story, instead, parallels that of millions of other Italian workers who left the economic wasteland and rigid social hierarchies of their Italian homes during 19th- and 20th-C., to risk all in the Americas. They led lives of manual labor (Rodia identified himself by signing his Towers with impressions of his humble hand tools in mortar plaques throughout the site.).
Sabina Magliocco, California State University – Northridge, “Herodias in Sardinia: The History of a Legend”
This paper explores the roots of a legendary figure from the Logudoro (northwest Sardinia) known as sa rejusta or sorre justa. I first encountered her during my fieldwork in the 1980s as little more than a figure used to frighten children. She was known as a witch who lived under the Craxtu ‘e Funari, on the ridge overlooking the Bidighinzu Basin. On the eve of August 1, she was said to leave her home and fly through the air to visit homes, where she would snatch or harm children. According to legend, her presence could be kept at bay by leaving a plate of lentils on the door sill, where she would be forced to stop and count them. By the time she had finished, daylight would return and force her back under her rocky dwelling. But who is this legendary figure? While some authors have suggested a link between her and an ancient Sardinian shamanistic religion (Turchi 2001), a closer, more historically grounded examination reveals connections between sa rejusta and Herodias (Erodiade in Italian), a character from the New Testament who became prominent in the folklore of medieval Italy, and appears in the Canon Episcopi. Called Aradia in Tuscany and Emilia, in central Sardinia she became known as “Araja.” This supernatural character was associated with night-time flights, magical banquets, and the ability to enter into people’s homes through the keyhole. There she would reward cleanliness and order, but punish slovenliness and disorder. She appears as the leader of women’s spiritual night-time gatherings in 13th century witchcraft trial transcripts from northern Italy, where women who confessed to journeying with her were convicted of sorcery (Ginsburg, date). In the 19th century, amateur American folklorist Charles G. Leland re-discovered the legend of Aradia and put her at the center of an alleged Tuscan witches’ cult (Leland, 1898). While scholars have doubted the veracity of his claims, the legend of Araja in Sardinia can help shed new light on how Greco-Roman beliefs, Germanic folklore and medieval Christian legends combined to create a uniquely Mediterranean character whose stories continue to evolve to this day.
Laura E. Ruberto, Berkeley City College, California, “Reinventing Italy in California: Hubcaps and Folk Art in the Napa Valley”
This paper will explore some of the ways material culture articulates Italian and Italian American identity within California locations. Against the backdrop of more famous Italian/California folk art sites, such as Sabato Rodia s Watts Towers or Baldassare Forestiere s Underground Gardens, this paper analyzes Litto Damonte s Hubcap Ranch (in the Napa Valley) and considers issues of place making and ethnicity as they become isolated within and against the commodification of Italian culture in the Napa Valley. Over the last thirty years the Napa Valley wine country has come to mean upscale restaurants, boutique wineries, and exclusive art galleries, many of which have a heavy Italian flavor. The Hubcap Ranch a site-specific environment decorated mainly with discarded hubcaps and soda cans remains outside of this California Italo-phile cultural scene, yet inextricably linked to it. Damonte s assembled work then represents at once an idiosyncratic individual s desire to express himself, an Italian American-instilled identity connected to skilled labor, craft, religion, and migration.
7D. Theme and Variation: The Four Temperaments, a Musical and Ballet Masterpiece
Ligia Pinheiro, Wittenberg University, Ohio
Juan F. La Manna, State University of New York, Oswego
This session will explore the genre of Theme and Variation both in music and ballet by examining Hindemith’s and Balanchine’s masterpiece, The Four Temperaments. After a brief overview of the history of variation in music and dance, we will examine Hindemith’s The Four Temperaments, showing how the three themes are varied, and how the variations reflect the ancient notion of the four humors in the body. Following the presentation, we will show a video of the complete ballet.
7E. Archaeology and Classical Studies
Chair: Thomas Prasch, Washburn University, Topeka, Kansas
Thomas Prasch, “The Balkan Labyrinth: The Geopolitical Dimension of Sir Arthur Evans’ Knossos Excavations”
Sir Arthur Evans’s turn-of-the-century excavations at Knossos stand, with Heinrich Schliemann’s Trojan and Mycenean digs, as classic exemplars of the age of heroic archaeology; like Schliemann’s excavations, they have come under increasing criticism by contemporary academics. At this point, significant revisionist interpretation has challenged Evans’s interpretation of Minoan civilization, has critiqued his archaeological reconstructions, has revisited his restorations, and has suggested his complicity in the development of an international art market for Minoan antiquities (and fraudulent versions of the same). Less examined, however, has been the basic question of how he pulled it all off: how, given the sensitivity of the Greek government in the wake of, among other things, the theft of the “Elgin” marbles, and the even contemporaneous doubts about his restoration methods, he managed to engineer the full-scale interventionist reconstruction of the site of Knossus. That story has much to do with Balkan politics in the era of Ottoman decline, a terrain with which Evans had a long-established history (given his earlier wanderings in Bosnia and Herzogivina in the 1870s) and a continuing interest (notably in his publications on the Yugoslav question after World War I). In order to carry out full-scale restorative excavations at the site of Knossus, Evans depended on an interesting wrinkle in Ottoman/Greek history: that, for a few years (1898-1906) the island of Crete was free of Ottoman rule (during which period Evans had failed to get authorization to dig) and not yet under Greek rule (under which conditions beginning the excavations in the manner Evans planned would have been impossible). This paper will examine Evans’s exploitation of that brief window of opportunity to begin his dig and restoration at Knossus, contextualizing it in relation to Evans’s own understanding of Balkan politics at the turn of the century.
Jan Ward Maxwell, Delta College, University Center, Michigan “Climate, Religion, Wars, and Themistocles: Their Underplayed Significance in Saving Democracy”
In 525 B.C., when climate, religion, and wars controlled the lives of men more aggressively than today, in the Greek village of Phrearrioi, a son (Themistocles) was born to the merchant Neocles and a woman who may have been either Abrotonon, a prostitute from Thrace, or Euterpe from Caria. Because his grandfather married into, rather than having been born into, the Lycomedea family, and because of his mother’s non-Athenian origin, Themistocles was forced to receive his education and physical training outside Athens at Cynosarges, the school dedicated to Hercules (himself a half-breed -- one parent a deity, the other a mortal). One teacher claimed Themistocles was destined for greatness, either good or evil. Consequently, two brilliant acts by Themistocles effected the defeat of the massive Persian-led invasion force in 480 and to the preservation of democracy. First, he convinced his countrymen that the wording (‘divine Salamis’) of a Delphic prophecy favored the Greeks, not the enemy. Secondly, he convinced them to use the revenue from a recently discovered silver lode to build extra warships to engage and defeat the Persian navy at Salamis, the deciding battle of the Greco-Persian wars. Yet, Themistocles was wrongly ostracized, threatened with a death sentence, and forced to flee from his homeland. Too little credit is still afforded him; therefore, my paper presents the life and times of this incredible man to show that it was he who was responsible for the survival of democracy.
Fuat Yilmaz, University of Trakya, Edirne, Turkey, “Diffusion of the Clazomenian Sarcophagi and New Findings”
Clazomenae is renowned for being a significant pottery production centre in Northern Ionia during the Archaic period. In addition to pottery, terracotta sarcophagi were produced there. The sarcophagi that have been produced in large quantities between 7th century BC and last quarter of the 5th century BC are known to be the Clazomenian Sarcophagi in the archaeological terminology. The most famous type of Clazomenian Sarcophagi is the one in trapezoid form, which has faces decorated with figures. Generally, a composition made with black figure technique is placed on the headpiece, while there are groups of three-animals in reserving style on the foot piece. Clazomenian sarcophagi are not solely peculiar to its production centre Clazomenae. The distribution of them covers a remarkably extended area in Aegean world. Smyrna is the leading centre with most extensive sarcophagi burials after Clazomenae. A few sarcophagi were found at Erythrae, Teos and Lebedos. At Colophon near Clazomenae, no sarchophagi were found probably for the same reason, which is the scarcity of scientific research in the area. Any Clazomenian sarcophagi were not found at necropolis of Phokaia and Larisa, which are located to the north. Apart from these, examples of Clazomenian sarcophagi were found at Sardis, Pitane, Chios, Samos, Rhodos, Acanthus and Lesbos. Local production sarcophagi identified as imitation of Clazomenae type were found at Abdera, which was a colony of Clazomenae. Two sarcophagi were discovered at Ephesus, which has a close distance to Clazomenae. A fragment of Clazomenian sarcophagus was found recently in addition to the sarcophagi found in the previous years.
7F. Mediterranean History
Chair: Mary M. Rowan, Brooklyn College, New York
Martin Strohmeier, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, “Sponge-fishing in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 19th Century”
Sponges have been used for various purposes in the Mediterranean and beyond for thousands of years. In recent times synthetic sponges have largely replaced natural sponges, although the latter are still a valued and precious product. Until the 20th century, the fishing of and trade with sponges was one of the more lucrative economic activities in the Eastern Mediterranean. The richest sponge beds were located on the south coast of Asia Minor, on the coasts of Syria and North Africa and around Crete and Cyprus. The work of sponge divers most of whom were based in the Dodecanes islands of the Aegean, followed the rotation of seasons, starting in April or May and returning before the autumn storms set in. Sponges were purchased by local merchants who resold them to several Mediterranean trading centres from where they were exported to Europe. In the second half of the 19th century sponge-fishing was revolutionized by the introduction of a breathing apparatus. These “machines,” as they were called in Ottoman documents utilized for this paper, made it possible to harvest larger amounts/quantities of sponges than unequipped divers. The paper attempts to outline the work of the divers, the trade with sponges and the conflict between the apparatus haves and have-nots.
Mirella Mafrici, Università di Salerno, “Calabria y Mediterráneo: mercancias, mercaderos y puertos entre el siglo XVIII y el siglo XIX”
En Calabria, entre el siglo XVIII y el siglo XIX, la mer es el principal medio de transporte de mercancias (grano, aceite, vino, higos, uvas, agrios, seda, regaliz, pez, maderas, ecc. ), que de lugares de producción llegan a los embarcaderos más próximos. Además de Reggio, puerto importante por el tráfico de mercaderos y de armadores forasteros, y de Crotona, puerto seguro de Tarento à lo Estrecho de Mesina, “scari”, caricatoi” y radas facilitan el empleo de embarcaciónes ligeras y rapidas. Falúas, “uzzi” y “paranze”, de un lato llegan con las cargas à Genova, Liorna sino tambien a Marsella y Malta en el Mediterráneo, dominado de Mesina, puerto franco internacional y plaza de negocios de tránsito, y del otro llegan a Venecia y Trieste.
Giuseppe Restifo, University of Messina, “Hanging Ships: Ex-Voto and Votive Offerings in Messina Churches in the Modern Age”
In a city every day hungry for wheat, the arrival of ships loaded with that valuable cargo is always eagerly awaited and welcome; moreover if the wind fills the ships sails in a period of protracted famine, the event is considered by the people as a miraculous favor. This happens many times in Messina during the modern age, being famine a structural fact. Particularly, once a cargo of wheat coming from the sea was so fundamental that Messina inhabitants wanted to show with a votive offering their gratitude and their devotion to “Madonna della Lettera”, Our Lady of the Sacred Letter, patron of the town. Three little silver ships of fine workmanship and forty-pounds-heavy were given up to the Virgin in memory of the received help. Those three little ships had to hang for ever before the altar dedicated to “Madonna della Lettera” in the Cathedral. The gift was followed with a solemn procession on the Second of June. On the Third of June, feast-day consecrated to Madonna patron of the town, a festal array was made above the altar: the sea was depicted in the background and in the middle it was a silver ship well-proportioned, symbol of the Virgin.
Manuela Garau, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “I rapporti commerciali della nobile famiglia degli Aymerich con Barcellona, Valenza e Maiorca tra ‘500 e ‘600 attraverso i documenti dell’originario ‘Fondo Aymerich’ custoditi negli archivi e nelle biblioteche della Sardegna”
La famiglia Aymerich è una delle più antiche e nobili casate sarde, residenti già dal XIV secolo a Cagliari, all’epoca capitale del Regno di Sardegna, sede del viceré e dei supremi organi amministrativi, e per questo ambìta residenza di famiglie nobili e potenti che accentrarono, via via, le maggiori cariche politiche, civili, militari e religiose. Esponenti della famiglia, sino ai primi dell’Ottocento, possedettero vasti feudi in tutta l’isola. Il presente contributo ricostruisce i rapporti di questa nobile famiglia sarda di origine gota dedita all’attività commerciale, in particolare alla vendita del grano, con gli operatori commerciali di Barcellona, Valenza e Maiorca nei secoli XVI e XVII attraverso i documenti dell’originario “Fondo Aymerich”. Tale fondo, che costituiva il ricco e cospicuo archivio degli Aymerich, tra gli anni trenta e quaranta del Novecento è stato in gran parte venduto. Le sedi conservative cagliaritane alle quali furono ceduti, in tempi differenti, i documenti e i libri facenti parte del patrimonio familiare, sono quattro: la Biblioteca Universitaria, la Biblioteca della Camera di Commercio, l’Archivio di Stato e l’Archivio Storico del Comune di Cagliari. Attraverso l’analisi dei documenti custoditi nelle quattro sedi conservative dell’isola, compresa la porzione privata appartenente a don Giusepe Aymerich viene ricostruita la fitta rete di contatti e di rapporti commerciali tra la Sardegna e gli altri regni della Corona di Spagna.
7G. Conflicts and Resolutions in Portugal, 1400-1800
Chair: Darlene Abreu-Ferreira, University of Winnipeg, Canada
Ivana Elbl, Trent University, Canada, “Emotions and Family Conflicts over Dom Pedro’s Regency in the early 1440s”
Royal minorities in the Middle Ages were very often tumultuous and the authority of the regents seldom unchallenged. The twelve-year period that followed the death of King Duarte of Portugal ( r. 1433-1438) was no exception. The political aspects of the regency are well known and documented. The close family ties among the prominent personages were characteristic of the period and it seems almost trivial to point them out. However, the role of emotions in this conflict has been little explored, partly because only recently have history and role of emotions gained the critical level of methodological legitimacy. The availability and validity of primary sources are one of the key issues in the ongoing debate. The surviving correspondence among some the key players in the early stages of Dom Pedro’s regency is eminently useful to examining the role of emotions in the conflict. The paper combines theory, documentary evidence, and narrative sources to argue that emotions played indeed a key role in the regency struggle and that they helped to sabotage its resolution.
Darlene Abreu-Ferreira, “For Her Own Good: Women and the Law in Sixteenth-Century Portugal”
A legal document is often formulaic and full of legal jargon, but persistent reading of some notarial records from 16th-century Portugal has resulted in some intriguing findings about the status of women in early modern Portugal. The documents in question deal with pardons, and specifically with women forgiving men for a number of infractions against them, from rape, to knifings, and other forms of physical assault. That the women were compelled - whether willingly or not is unclear - to grant such a pardon raises interesting questions in itself, but this paper will focus on one particular element found in some of these pardons. Each document ends with the similar clause that the woman gives up all further claim for any damages, including, an additional note points out, all privileges that women enjoyed under the law. This presentation will examine some notarial records to determine the extent of those alleged privileges, real or imaginary.
David Higgs, University of Toronto, Canada, “Catamites and the Inquisition in Baroque Lisbon”
Using the documentation of the Inquisition of Lisbon which is housed in the National Archives of Portugal this paper engages with the work of Michael Rocke, Forbidden friendships: homosexuality and male culture in Renaissance Florence (1996) to explore the concept of a Mediterranean region pattern of age stepped homosexual activities. The documents held in Lisbon dealing with the “abominable sin” (pecado nefando) are most numerous in the mid seventeenth century. They frequently have details on the age and sexual practices of the men and boys being investigated. They also provide details of the social relationships of the individuals. This enables the reader to investigate if the dependent relationships such as those of page or apprentice were conducive to a particular culture of homosexual behaviour and how the inquisitors reacted to denunciations of different types.
7H. Turkish Studies
Chair: Mukadder Yaycioglu, University of Ankara, Turkey
Belgin Turan Özkaya, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, “‘Authors’ of Cultural History from the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic (co-authored by Elvan Altan Ergut)”
This paper is part of our larger project on the ‘authors’ of cultural histories from the Ottoman Empire to different nation states. The histories of the states that emerged at the wake of the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire which span a wide geography from the Middle East to North Africa to the Balkans are fragmentary and often discontinuous with their Ottoman past. Our aim is to probe the larger picture of the diverse cultural discourses that precede and follow the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, which may show unforeseen parallels and divergences. In this paper, as an extension of that larger project, we cover late Ottoman and early Republican Turkish periods by focusing on individuals who shaped contemporary discourses of archaeology, art and architectural history, often informed by larger historiographical projects, whereby certain periods, events and individuals were appropriated while others were disregarded in connection with how collective pasts were shaped in this rapidly changing and ambivalent context. We scrutinize how these ‘pioneer’ and ‘powerful’ individuals of different backgrounds shaped their respective fields; and ask what kinds of pasts they envisaged, what kinds of aesthetics they propagated, how their historical and aesthetic preferences affected the cultural contexts of their time, and also question the possible role of contemporary contexts on their production. Our aim is to disrupt the seemingly monolithic narratives of culture and history, and reveal the multiple voices behind these discourses as formed by different subject positions and viewpoints. By anatomizing cases imbued by various kinds of modernization as well as nationalism, imperialism, and orientalism, we attempt to go beyond the hitherto tired usage of these concepts by defying conventional oppositions - particularly geographical oppositions such as the ‘West’ versus the ‘non-West’- and show that seemingly familiar categories can work in unexpected ways.
Meral Özçınar, Canakkale 18 Mart University, and Mehmet Eşli, Canakkale Municipality, Turkey, “East in the Mirror of West”
One of the reasons of deep cliff between modern and non-modern civilizations and different understanding of same evetns is different time and place perceptions, feelings. Time and place are not objective facts they are cultural phenomenons It is undiscussable that the difference between societies which are living friendly with nature, not isolated, accept nature as holy, accept time as a process in nature and societies which try to dominate nature and distinguish time from place, is clear Time and place are social phenomenons which give shape to internal and external world of human. Modernity makes new settings for time and place, ascribe new meanings, and makes big changes in perspectives. Place design which is arranged according to laws of perspective, locates individual in a single point thus ascribe him attribute of subject İn contrast to rational time, place and subject understanding in the west, a different fact understanding is prevailing in the east. Oriental individual, contrary to subject who undertands, interpret the reality and hold power for changing reality, prefers not changing the reality but understand it, lost in community, and Express himself in different art forms: Miniature. Derviş Zaim in his “cenneti Beklerken” movie interprets differences in eastern and western mentality comparing miniature with picture. Tells the story of prince who wants a miniaturist to picturize reflection of mehdi to mirror in Diego Velazguez’ Las Meninas painting Self seeking in a culture which doesnt picturize appearence is dream of a society in terms of movie. This study aims to investigate “subject” search in Turkey, locates himself between east and west, in terms of cinema of Derviş Zaim.
Kursad Ertugrul, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, “Gramsci and Constructivism”
In his description of the historical bloc Gramsci makes a distinction between “material forces” as the “content” and “ideologies” as “the form” of the historical bloc. Though, as he says, this distinction has “purely didactic value” it enables us to conceive and problematize the historical bloc in terms of “the construction of its form as an active, open-ended and creative process. However the construction process of “the form” does not take place in an open field with endless possibilities and contingent outcomes. As Gramsci says “constructions which respond to the demands of a complex organic period of history always impose themselves and prevail in the end.” In this context I think that Gramsci’s conception of historical bloc would provide a theoretical bridge to the contemporary constructivist theory by linking “the ideational factors” to a conception of organic unity (of the historical bloc) without reducing them simply to a material base and without turning them into “independent variables” constructing the social reality. Therefore Gramsci’s theory of historical bloc would both reveal the gaps in the constructivist theory and also provide certain ways of overcoming them.
Şerife Güvençoğlu, State Conservatory of Turkish Music, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey, “The ‘Köçekçe’ Form of Turkish Music”
This form of Turkish music was prepared to dance and it is used for the dancers called “köçek” to dance. This form improved itself by time and instead of being used just for one dance it took the form of multi-art rhythm. The works such as mâni, koşma, türkü and şarkı which are also performed individually, are brought together and combined with “aranağme” parts according to their rhythms and mode. This musical composition is one of the most important and artful forms of Turkish music as a “suit”. Most of the parts which constitute this “suit” called “köçekçe” are in fact Anatolian or Rumelian “türküs” and their connections (aranağme) were composed by different composers. During 18th century, composers, especially Dede Efendi and later some composers who lived in the 19th century composed some songs which were “şarkı” form for the purpose of composing “köçekçe” and wrote their connections (aranağme) and created special suits.
8A. Chiesa e religiosità in Sardegna tra Alto Medioevo ed Età Moderna
Chair: Rossana Martorelli, Università di Cagliari
Rossana Martorelli, “Insediamenti monastici in Sardegna dalle origini al XV secolo: linee essenziali”
Il monachesimo, un fenomeno che si affaccia nel mondo cristiano nel IV secolo, sembra giungere in Sardegna non anteriormente al VI, ispirato a modelli di vita ascetica e cenobitica africana. L’eco della Regula benedettina si avverte, invece, solo in età giudicale, quando gli stessi iudices, anche per mostrare un’adesione alla linea perseguita dalla Chiesa di Roma, invitano nell’isola i monaci cassinesi, con il preciso scopo di fondare dei monasteri. L’Ordine Benedettino domina in Sardegna in tutto il periodo medievale, insieme agli ordini riformati, fino al XIV secolo, quando con la dominazione catalano-aragonese si registrano alcune modifiche ed innovazioni.
Maria Giuseppina Meloni, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Una fonte per la religiosità mediterranea nella prima Età Moderna: la Informatio sul santuario della Madonna di Bonaria (Cagliari)”
I processi informativi per eventi miracolosi, che si diffondono soprattutto in periodo post-tridentino, vengono istruiti dall’autorità ecclesiastica locale per accertare, con l’ausilio di un’apposita commissione, la veridicità di fatti miracolosi, sancire l’ufficialità di un culto e l’importanza di un santuario. Queste fonti, che solo in tempi abbastanza recenti hanno suscitato l’interesse degli storici in ambito nazionale e internazionale, offrono un quadro ricco e articolato della società della prima età moderna e molteplici possibilità di lettura e di approccio. La Informatio sui miracoli della Madonna di Bonaria, istruita nel 1592, non è mai stata pubblicata integralmente. Pietra miliare nella storia del principale santuario mariano della Sardegna, presenta numerosi spunti per lo studio della vita sociale ed economica della città di Cagliari e dei suoi rapporti con il mondo mediterraneo. In particolare, emerge il ruolo del santuario cagliaritano come punto di riferimento devozionale dei naviganti di diverse nazionalità che frequentavano il porto cittadino, e la larga diffusione di questo culto tra la gente di mare del Mediterraneo.
Simonetta Sitzia, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “‘Lo sguardo del vescovo’: clero e conflitti di potere nelle visite pastorali di Salvatore Alepus arcivescovo di Sassari (1553 e 1555)”
Roberto Porrà, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Il culto di san Giacomo in Sardegna: storia, arte, tradizioni”
Il culto di san Giacomo è uno dei più diffusi e sentiti dalla popolazione in Sardegna. Nella comunicazione verranno illustrate le vicende connesse allo sviluppo di tale culto nell’isola nel contesto storico di riferimento, a partire dal medioevo fino all’età moderna. Verranno esaminati anche i principali santuari e chiese dedicate al santo e le opere d’arte relative al culto. Tale parte della comunicazione dovrebbe essere svolta insieme allo storico dell’arte Roberto Concas. Da ultimo un cenno alle tradizioni popolari, espresse principalmente nelle sagre paesane, e al recente rinvigorirsi di tali tradizioni grazie all’iniziativa comune di tutti i comuni sardi che hanno il santo come patrono.
8B. Per un’antropologia dei saperi
Chair: M. Gabriella Da Re, Università di Cagliari
M. Gabriella Da Re, “Olivi, olivastri, lentisco nella Sardegna meridionale tra Otto e Novecento”
A partire dalla constatazione di M. Le Lannou: “La vecchia trinità mediterranea, grano-vite-olivo, qui non regna su molta parte del territorio” (1992, p. 243) verrà illustrato lo statuto dell’olivo in una regione ad alta vocazione cerealicola (Marmilla). La nozione di ‘terzo paesaggio’ di G. Clément, verrà utilizzata per analizzare il complesso tema del rapporto tra la dimensione selvatica e la domestica e dei modi in cui gli olivicoltori le facessero utilmente incontrare, sapendo che tra esse esiste solo una differenza di grado potenzialmente riducibile o al contrario incrementabile all’infinito. La pianta dell’ulivo più di altre ha la capacità di suscitare emozioni, sentimenti che vanno oltre il rapporto utilitaristico. Essa è un elemento attivo del paesaggio, talvolta dominatore. Produttività, bellezza, antichità dell’albero o degli alberi formano un insieme complesso di ordine emotivo, un legame nato certo da una corrispondenza tra le aspettative produttive dell’uomo e la rispondenza della pianta, ma che lo scorrere del tempo rende autonomo, come tra persone. Dalle parole dei nostri testimoni emerge uno speciale rapporto con la natura, la quale, mentre si fa usare e ci è utile, ci costruisce e fonda il senso della nostra appartenenza.
Carlo Maxia, Università di Cagliari, “Sentieri di suoni: Estetiche e pratiche nell’uso dei campanacci in Sardegna”
L’intervento illustra i risultati di una ricerca etnografica in corso riguardante l’impiego dei campanacci in Sardegna, di cui si mette in evidenza la centralità nella produzione pastorale, ma anche in quella più ampiamente estetica e sociale: se da un lato l’impiego dei suoni assicura il controllo sulle greggi, garantendo un efficace “uso dell’istintualità animale”, dall’altro rappresenta un campo semantico di espressività estetica, legato alla scelta dei suoni. L’”accordo del gregge”, nella sua unicità è spesso frutto di un’appassionata cura e rappresenta una sorta di “identità sonora” sulla quale si basano importanti giudizi formulati reciprocamente fra pastori. L’intervento presenta qualche riflessione comparativa sul contesto Mediterraneo e si soffermerà sulle differenze d’impiego dei campanacci tra la prima e la seconda metà del Novecento, cercando di far emergere alcuni significativi cambiamenti che si celano dietro un’apparente continuità culturale. Dalla ricerca emerge, infatti, un esempio di mutamento culturale che si esprime non attraverso l’uso di una nuova tecnica, ma mediante la rielaborazione culturale di una tecnica del passato, reinterpretata secondo modalità di approccio agli oggetti materiali che potremmo definire postmoderne. Esempio di ciò sono delle vere e proprie collezioni realizzate da alcuni pastori e l’enfasi posta dagli stessi sugli aspetti estetici a parziale discapito di quelli funzionali.
Felice Tiragallo, Università di Cagliari, “Le abilità visive nella tessitura tradizionale in Sardegna”
In che modo lo sguardo etnografico può cogliere e rappresentare la corporeità e la materialità dei comportamenti produttivi, il rapporto fra i gesti tecnici con un momento progettuale antecedente, e la rete della relazioni fra persone e fra sguardi in cui essi stessi vivono? I saperi tecnici, intesi da questa angolazione, sono largamente intrecciati con la dimensione delle abilità visive, secondo modalità esplorate fra l’altro dalla psicologia e dall’antropologia cognitiva. Nella tessitura tradizionale il problema è cogliere le dinamiche e le logiche con cui si dispiegano le abilità (nel senso individuato da Tim Ingold) visive delle tessitrici e il loro rapporto con gli aspetti simbolizzati e progettuali del loro agire. In questo quadro ci si propone di esplorare, in relazione alla Sardegna, quella sfera di saperi tessili che si riferiscono alla cognizione e alla rappresentazione del mondo naturale, e alla assunzione dei diversi colori ottenibili dalla diverse piante in una tassonomia capace di formare un linguaggio cromatico specifico. Inoltre si intende analizzare le pratiche sociali poste in essere dalle tessitrici come membri di una comunità di pratica, dove le abilità delle attrici sociali, in questo caso connesse a un “saper vedere” i colori, sono elementi costitutivi di un’apparteneza sociale.
8C. Riflessioni metodologiche e storiografiche sulla Sardegna tra Età Moderna e Contemporanea.
Chair: Francesco Atzeni, Università di Cagliari
Massimo Viglione, ISEM – CNR, Cagliari, “Scenari mediterranei di Rivoluzione e Controrivoluzione: le insorgenze antigiacobine e antinapoleoniche in Sardegna e nel Regno di Napoli”
Aldo Accardo, Università di Cagliari, “Un’isola lontana dal mare: Sardegna e mediterraneo in età contemporanea”
Francesco Atzeni, Università di Cagliari, “Sardegna e Mediterraneo tra 800 e 900”
8D. L’identità in cucina: resistenze, scambi, innovazioni nel mondo mediterraneo di oggi e di ieri
Chair: Luisa Faldini, Università di Genova
Franco Lai, Università di Sassari, “Il cibo e le politiche di produzione della località”
Il cibo e in genere le produzioni agroalimentari locali definite come tipiche sono oggi al centro delle politiche di sviluppo che l UE ha in vario modo posto al centro dell attenzione in quelle regioni europee con una storia materiale e alimentare ritenuta importante. Gli attori sociali e politici locali hanno risposto in modo attivo anche perché lo sviluppo delle tradizioni produttive alimentari locali trova una rispondenza con diverse forme di turismo oggi piuttosto richieste nel mondo industriale come il turismo culturale e ambientale. In questo intervento mostrerò alcune implicazioni di questo processo con particolare riferimento a una zona della Sardegna.
Alessandra Guigoni, Associazione Interregionale Partecipazione e Studi in Agribusiness Paesaggio e Ambiente, “L’America nel piatto: le conseguenze socio-culturali dello scambio colombiano in Europa”
Le conseguenze dell introduzione di patate, pomodori, mais, fichidindia, cacao nel sistema agro-alimentare europeo sono prodigiose quanto poco note. L introduzione è avvenuta per lo più con lentezza, spesso con lo sfavore dei ceti rurali, e attraverso numerosi passaggi per rendere quelle sostenze vegetali ignote familiari e dunque gradite al palato, ma soprattutto buone da pensare oltre che da mangiare. Ad esempio si dà per scontato che la pasta col pomodoro, simbolo dell italianità, appartenga al ricettario delle famiglie italiane da sempre, mentre la prima ricetta risale appena al 1839. Si considera la polenta di mais un cibo identitario di quell area italiana denominata Padania, area che è diventata calda dal punto di vista politico a partire dai primi anni 90, e dove la polenta è diventata un simbolo etnico, a tal punto da spingere più di un pizzaiolo locale a creare una pizza alla polenta tra cui lo chef di uno dei ristoranti più amati dal fondatore della Lega nord, Umberto Bossi. Gli esempi potrebbero continuare ed estendersi all intera Europa: ad esempio secondo gli Hampl il mito dei vampiri nacque in Romania in concomitanza con l introduzione su vastissima scala del mais, che divenne un monoalimento e scatenò il diffondersi nei ceti rurali della pellagra. La relazione ragionerà di questi ed altri sorprendenti casi legati al fenomeno dello scambio colombiano, antesignano dell attuale globalizzazione, e alle sue ripercussioni nelle culture europee di ieri e di oggi.
Commentator: Giulio Angioni, Università di Cagliari
8E. Archaeology, Classical Studies, Museum Studies
Chair: Suna Guven, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Kalomira Mataranga, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece, “Mediterranean Sea-Routes and Ports of Call (5th -3rd Century BC): The Case of Cephallenia”
The aim of this paper is to trace the role of Cephallenia, the largest of the Ionian Islands off the west coast of Greece, in the Ionian Sea, as a port of call and as a staging post between East and West, from the 5th to the 3th century BC. The importance of the island s geographical position on the sailing routes along the west coast of Greece and on the important sea-lane, which led to South Italy and Sicily, are some of the issues that are discussed in this paper.
Vaios Vaiopoulos, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece, “Literary Sources on Religion and Politics in Augustan Rome: Foreign Deities and Roman Tradition”
The reinforcement of Romans national
self-confidence during Augustan period is accompanied by the conscious
providence for a restriction of the impact by Egyptian customs or beliefs, that
had become popular at the period of triumvirates. While piety towards
traditional Roman gods was being encouraged, adoration of deities considered as
foreign to romanitas was being consistently discouraged. This attitude is very
important, as it shows up within a state for which tolerance towards foreign
cultures and traditions used to be a conscious choice. If Romans are proved
particularly open toward foreign cultures and traditions as is the Greek and
the Etruscan, they are not at all willing to accept ideas, religions and
beliefs that to their opinion could possibly put the Roman character into danger.
In the case of Egyptian and Eastern deities, the threaten had preceded, in the
case of Christianity, the Christians indifference towards the State was a
sufficient cause to raise a deep feeling of dissatisfaction.
Suna Guven, “Beyond Image and Content: Building the Cyprus Archaeological Museum”
This paper will focus on the Cyprus Archaeological Museum in Nicosia that was built in 1908. The neo-classical architectural style was created by N. Balanos, a Greek architect from the Archaeological Society of Athens while the construction of the new building was supervised by G.H. Everett Jeffery, the current archaeological curator under the British colonial regime. As can be expected, the main intention was to store and exhibit Cypriot artefacts recovered in the scientific excavations and salvage digs conducted under the supervision of the Department of Antiquities. Yet archaeological activity on the island and the building of the museum were certainly not independent of ambivalent political sentiment on the part of the colonizer and the colonized where the desired ancient roots of Cyprus - already in hand or waiting to be discovered - for universal display were concerned. My paper will highlight and discuss the political and cultural agenda that shaped the museum and its building.
8F. Theater, Literature, and Culture
Chair: Ricardo Bigi de Aquino, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
Ricardo Bigi de Aquino, “Eleonora Duse and the Art of Acting: The Eternal Paradigm”
Born in the Lombard town of Vigevano when it still belonged to the Kingdom of Sardinia, only daughter in a family of poor strolling players, Eleonora Duse (1858-1924) went on to become Italy´s most illustrious actress and earned the respect of public and critics worldwide as a performer of unique sensibility and genius. Self-taught, she struggled all her life to attain the highest levels of artistic excellence as she believed in her mission to renew the theatre as an art form. Duse was, by all standards, the first modern actress, and her work stood in sharp contrast with the old school pyrotechnics of her equally accomplished rival, Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923). Through her example of artistic integrity she established a paradigm for achievement in acting that, arguably, has never been surpassed. One hundred and fifty years after her birth, we pay tribute to this great woman revisiting her life as seen by her major biographers: Winwar (1956), Le Gallienne (1966), Weaver (1986) and Sheehy (2003).
Beatriz Helena Domingues, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, “Prospero Assimilating Caliban: Richard Morse and Brazilian Modernism”
This is part of my current research on the assimilation, by the Brazilianist Richard Morse, of the Brazilian movement known as antropophagy, which started by the Week of Modern Art, in São Paulo, in 1992. It suggests that, against the current, Morse, instead of using the Anglo American intellectual equipment and tools to analyze South America, turned in the opposite direction and asked how the Iberian American world can help one, certainly himself, to understand its own culture. Morse suggests to Prospero (United States) should look at himself at the mirror in order to better understand not only Iberian America as an exotic subject. For, if Prospero would know Caliban better, he would enjoy him, learn from him, canibalise him. This is what Morse does toward the Brazilian and Iberian American cultures.
Rosemari Bendlin Calzavara, Universidade Norte do Paraná, Londrina, Brazil, “Teatro e memória: a história de um país no palco”
A história do Brasil é particularmente rica em situações mal esclarecidas ou mal contadas e que deixam dúvidas quanto aos seus registros e explicações. Empenhado em conhecer a verdadeira história do Brasil, o dramaturgo brasileiro, Jorge Andrade percorreu diversos documentos e livros das mais variadas linhas ideológicas. Acreditava que só a partir dessa intensa pesquisa poderia escrever suas peças mais significativas. No ciclo Marta, a árvore e o relógio, ao utilizar a história do Brasil como tema de suas peças, o dramaturgo resgata a sua história particular bem como a história de um país colonizado por diversas culturas.
8G. Spaces of Mediterranean Resistance
Chair: Tullio Pagano, Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania
Tullio Pagano, “Italo Calvino’s Mediterranean Landscapes of Resistance”
In Landscape’s Shadow (2006), cultural geographer Massimo Quaini argues that Mediterranean landscape may be divided between an abstract, dehumanizing “space of fluxes,” embodied by global capitalism and modern technological warfare, and a “space of places” represented by local, marginal cultures and guerrilla warfare. My paper examines Italo Calvino’s early discovery of the “dark side” of Mediterranean landscape during the Italian Resistance (1943-45) and shows the long lasting impact that his experience as a guerrilla fighter had on his intellectual formation and his literary production, from his fist novel The Path to the Spiders’ Nest to later works such as The Road to San Giovanni and From the Opaque.
Vincenzo Binetti, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, “Spaces of Resistance, Lines of Flight and the Italian Nation-State”
This paper will analyze the problematic issue of the political and historical representation of Italian national identity shortly after the end of the fascist regime through specific investigations of the ideological dynamics defining Cesare Pavese’s narrative production. The question of the “engagement” and of the political commitment within the process of (re)construction of a new “italianità” essentially based on the myth of the historical Resistance, is provocatively destabilized and problematized by this author, thus allowing for the visualization of “other” possible spaces of resistance capable of deterritorializing, in Deleuzian terms, the hegemonic discourse of the nation-state, and producing instead new forms of nomadism and autonomy.
Saree Makdisi, University of California, Los Angeles, “Imperial Landscape and the Negation of Life”
This paper considers the case of the contemporary Gaza Strip as a site in which to explore the way in which space is deployed not merely to express the politics of power and imperial surveillance but also of biopolitical and ultimately perhaps what Achille Mbembe has theorized as necropolitical power as well, by which he means--via an engagement with the work of Giorgio Agamben--the exercise of sovereign power in order to negate life, literally to the point of death and virtual extermination. Gaza will provide the site to explore the connections of this kind of work with the deployment of various architectures of space--as theorized by WJT Mitchell and Eyal Weizmann, among others--and will be especially interested in considering the limits of the biopolitical and necropolitical domination of the occupied Palestinian landscape.
8H. Ciudad y territorio (poder y fiscalidad): la construcción de vínculos de identidad en la Castilla urbana del siglo XV
Chair: José Antonio Jara Fuente, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca, España
José Antonio Jara Fuente, “Las jurisdicciones urbanas y su fiscalidad: entre la apropiación y la distribución de los recursos. Castilla en el siglo XV”
Urban scholars (not only in Castilian historiography) understand urban jurisdictions as areas specifically built for the projection of the town s economic, political (even military) and social interests. Although this view, in its general traits, is right, it needs qualifying. During the fifteenth century, Castilian cities and towns had to face the apparently never-ending civil wars promoted by a nobility anxious to extend its domains (most times at the town s expense). In this context, town and jurisdiction needed each other in order to defend themselves from noble depredations; in turn, it stressed the important role played by jurisdictions inside the whole urban system. Thus, the aim of this paper is to analyse this partial realignment of relationships (town-jurisdiction), in a specific area of the town s projection over the jurisdiction: taxation.
Yolanda Guerrero Navarrete, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, España, “Burgos, ‘Lord’ of Villages and Vassals”
Unlike in the case of many other Castilian cities and towns, the construction of a territory under the jurisdiction of the city of Burgos was a slow and difficult process ever in hard competition with the neighbouring powerful lay and ecclesiastic lords. Slowly, during the XII, XIII and XIV centuries, Burgos, with the royal support, was able to build a municipal jurisdiction to the measure of the productive and consumption needs of the city, and of the needs of Burgos Atlantic trade. Nevertheless, this achievement had not only an economic impact on the city; its real importance lied on its political interest for Burgos. This later is the only explanation for the heavy emphasis put by the city on the definition and signification of the relationship linking Burgos to its jurisdiction, clearly defined in terms of «lord» and «vassals»; and for the acceptance, year after year, of the heavy economic burden imposed on the city by the defence of this jurisdiction.
David Igual Luis, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, España, “La fiscalidad en un espacio fronterizo: Albacete entre los siglos XIII-XV”
The territory of Albacete constituted at the end of the Middle Ages, in southern Castile, a frontier area by its proximity to the Crown of Aragon and to the Muslim Kingdom of Granada. In this context, the population of the zone had a quite unstable historical development. However, from the XIIIth century onwards, this space was divided in three sectors: Alcaraz and its territory, that pertained to the royal jurisdiction; the places of the Order of Santiago; and the lordship of Villena, that included towns like Albacete, Almansa, Chinchilla or Hellín. Until the XVth century, these three sectors consolidated progressively their legal and institutional image. In that image the definition of a fiscality was important, and numerous political, social and economic interests were concerned by this process. My contribution will analyze the construction of the fiscality in Albacete and its region, with three main objectives that will be studied by combining bibliographical and documental research: 1. To describe the formal characteristics of that fiscality; 2. To explain the jurisdictional and territorial repercussion of this construction; 3. To compare the fiscal reality of the territory of Albacete with other zones of Castile, in order to interpret the authentic significance of the realities that will be detected.
Juan Antonio Barrio Barrio, Universidad de Alicante, España, “La delimitación territorial y el control de los espacios en la frontera meridional del reino de Valencia. Siglos XIII-XV”
Christian conquest of the Muslim Kingdoms of Valencia and Murcia was the result of the cooperation, competition (and sometimes struggle) of the two principal Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, Castile and Aragon. The control of the lands thus acquired was made possible through the delimitation of big municipal jurisdictions put under the authority of the cities and towns re-conquered or founded in these areas. From the XIII to XV century Murcian and Valencian urban ruling elites tried to enforce the authority of their respective cities and towns over their jurisdictions, coming into clash with the neighbouring municipalities (as happened in the case of Orihuela and Murcia), and having to resort to the expedient of marking the boundaries of their respective jurisdictions in order to fix with absolute precision those boundaries. In this sense, the aim of this paper is fourfold: first, to analyse the conflicts arisen between neighbouring towns pertaining to different Kingdoms over the control and delimitation of frontier areas. Second, to analyse the similar conflicts emerged inside an area, the Gobernación de Orihuela, a district of the Kingdom of Aragon (in southern Valencia) bordering on Castile s Kingdom of Murcia; in this case, focus will be put on the conflicts arisen between the city of Orihuela and its villages, and between the city and the lordships established inside its jurisdiction. Third, to analyse these same conflicts although on a superior level; in this case, I will consider the conflicts emerged between the city and the other towns and seigniorial jurisdictions (Novelda, Aspe or Elda, for example) of the Gobernación. And fourth, I will analyse the role played by the discourses elaborated by the Christian and Muslim population in order to gain the control over areas not well delimited (and over their natural resources), stressing the ability and relative independence displayed by the Muslim population in the defence of their rights (overcoming the traditional view of their feudal oppression).